§ 12. International relations. Thirty Years' War 1618-1648 biennium
1. What role in the events of European history Karl played V and Philippe II Habsburgs?
2. What conflicts could arise between Europe in the early XVII century.?
Thirty Years' War was the first war between Europe's two large groups: Habsburg Union (Spanish and Austro-German Habsburgs and the Catholic princes of Germany, Commonwealth) and antyhabsburzkoyu coalition (France, Sweden, Denmark, the Protestant princes of Germany, etc...)
The main substance of the war was to pinpoint differences between Catholicism and Protestantism, though in its current sense of these contradictions and complicated pohlyblyuvavsya, and war itself has gradually become a struggle for supremacy in Europe.
1. The international situation in Europe in the XVI century. Exacerbation of the differences between European countries
International situation in Europe у ХVEast. was tense and difficult.
Spanish and Austro-German branch of the Habsburg dynasty after a period of rivalry decided join efforts in fighting for the establishment of its supremacy in Europe.
France, at that increased time, sought to prevent this and have supported the Protestants in Germany. In addition, France wanted to establish its dominance in Italy and was dissatisfied increasing influence of Spanish Habsburg here.
The Government of England also not willing to stand aside. On the one hand, England did not want to strengthen the impact Catholic Habsburgs in the Netherlands and Germany, on the other - to strengthen France failed to meet its trade interests. Ambiguity position demanded England from her constant maneuvering between the Habsburgs and their opponents.
Denmark, being associated with North German political and economic ties also did not Germany wanted to strengthen the Habsburgs.
King of Sweden Gustav II Adolf, as King of Denmark Christian IV, sought to strengthen its influence country's northern sea routes. Expansion of Spain prevented his intentions.
Moscow kingdom then was fighting for access to the Baltic Sea. Habsburgs supported Catholic Poland to prevent the advancement of Muscovy to the west.
At the same time most European countries experienced falling prestige of the Catholic Church. In Part of the Reformation took place in other Counter-Reformation began. Both the parties were unwilling to negotiate, sought to destroy the enemy. The result was the escalation of these conflicts Thirty Years' War (1618-1648 biennium).
Fig. Thirty Years' War
2. Habsburg Policy in Europe. Reasons for War
Habsburg Dynasty played a significant role in contemporary Europe. Of CERedin XV. Habsburg emperors were elected Holy constantly Roman Empire. The collapse of state Charles V not softened the severity of international controversy in Europe. Both branches of the Habsburg dynasty struggling with Protestants, Catholics and kept trying to assert its dominance over Europe. At the beginning of the XVII century. Habsburgs came to the conclusion that joint action will benefit them. In many European countries, this has caused great concern.
Habsburgs continued, still dream of a world empire of Catholic under their rule. Relying on the support of the Catholic Church, the Habsburgs going to destroy the lands belonged to them not only the Protestant movement, but also any movement for liberation from the domination of their dynasty.
Active against Protestants spread elected Holy Roman Emperor Rudolf II of Spain. With the support of Rudolf II Jesuits began to expand their activities in Czech and German Protestant principalities. In response to persecution Protestant princes of Germany joined in Evangelical UnionHeaded by Frederick Pfaltsskyy Electors. Instead, the Catholic princes created in 1609 their union called Catholic LeagueHeaded by Maximilian of Bavaria. Both unions were looking for supporters in Europe. Yevanhelistychnu league supported the Protestant countries, Holland, Denmark, Sweden and England, and more - France, which although was a Catholic country, was unwilling increasing influence of Habsburg in Europe. Catholic League supported Austro-German and Spanish Habsburgs.
The relationship between the two camps exacerbated, and lacked only about to began war.
3. Bohemian War period (1618-1623 biennium)
Events that were The reason for the war occurred in Bohemia, which was under the rule Austro-German Hapsburg. Most of the population was dissatisfied with the Czech Republic national oppression, lack of political rights. In 1617 King Czech Republic was elected Ferdinand of Habsburg supporter Shtiriyskoho (after the death of Rudolf II he became the emperor). This event caused an explosion in the Czech national discontent.
In the capital Prague rebellion broke out. The crowd of protesters seized the castle of Prague Castle and threw with three windows QC (definestratsiya Prague), who led the country without a king. On the royal throne Czechs invited the Evangelical Union Friedrich Pfaltsskoho. In response, Ferdinand Shtiriyskyy not wanting to lose the Czech throne, launched with the support Catholic League hostilities.
Fig. Prague uprising. Austrian officials were thrown from the windows of City Hall
The Czechs fought bravely and won several victories. However, their army was much smaller than the host Catholic League, led by an experienced military leader J. Tilly. In the battle near White Mountains November 8, 1620 He defeated the Czech Protestants. In the Czech Republic Catholic terror was launched: a fire ignited Inquisition, Czech prohibited language, work nyschylysya Czech scientists. "The Age of Darkness" was named the time the Czechs.
Meanwhile, Tilly moved further to the German lands and took possession of Frederick Pfaltsskoho. Successes Catholics in the first stage of the war is extremely alarmed Protestant princes Nordic countries.
4. Danish War period (1624-1629 years)
On the side of the Evangelical Union the war against Habsburg joined the Danish King Christian IV. Now Yevanhelistychnoyi forces in the league was much more than Ferdinand Shtiriyskoho, which lacked the funds to support its army Tilly. Out of this situation Ferdinand found by taking the proposal to create a new Army of Albrecht Wallenstein inflicted (1583—1634).
Fig. Albrecht Wallenstein inflicted
Albrecht Wallenstein inflicted - one of the most interesting figures in times of war. In his person combined unprincipled adventurer and gifted military leader. Originally A. Wallenstein inflicted - a Czech nobleman. Educated by the Jesuits, became strongly Catholic. He was a talented, ambitious and extremely cynical person. He part in the defeat of the Czechs under the White Mountain. Grateful Emperor Ferdinand helped Wallenstein inflicted for a symbolic price buy up land confiscated for the Czechs, and the became the owner of the largest landholdings in the Czech Republic (9 cities, 57 locks, some hundreds of villages). In 1624 emperor granted him the title of Duke Fridlandskoho.
Wallenstein inflicted commanded the armies of mercenaries and professionals offered the emperor create 20000th auxiliaries (and expense Wallenstein inflicted) if Ferdinand will keep this army through requisitions (robbery) local population. Emperor gladly agreed and ordered Wallenstein inflicted commander. All military prey, in agreement with the emperor, remained Wallenstein inflicted. In the short term recruited one hundred thousandth army, in which Wallenstein inflicted instituted strict discipline. Thanks to army Wallenstein inflicted Catholics defeated the Danish army of Christian IV. Grateful emperor rewarded his chief of Mecklenburg dukestvom and title of "Generalissimo Baltic seas and ocean. Advances Wallenstein inflicted aroused envy among managers of the Catholic League. In their insistence Wallenstein inflicted emperor removed from command of the army and ordered to disband his troops.
Successes Кatollsцькth league first Minister of France Cardinal Richelieu. He began to encourage the Swedish king Gustav II Adolf(1611-1632 biennium) to war неї.
Fig. Gustav II Adolf
Gustav II Adolf called the "Northern Lion". Thanks to the successful war against Poland and Moscow states it has significantly strengthened the position of Sweden in the Baltic region, making Baltic Sea to "Swedish lake" (all of its coasts, except the South, property was located in Sweden). Gustav II Adolf was an ardent supporter Protestants and did not want to strengthen the position of the Catholic Habsburgs in Europe. Richelieu to the King of Sweden has provided generous subsidies and promised every possible assistance if he will launch a war against the Catholic League.
5. Swedish War period (1630-1634 years)
In the summer of 1630, Gustav II Adolf landed in North Germany, and began hostilities. Swedish Army consisted of free peasants Protestants who believed that protect their brothers the faith of the hated Catholics. Added to the high moral ideals fighting as the army of Gustav II Adolf: she was armed with the latest contemporary military equipment - small flint muskets, shvydkostrilnu field artillery, well organized infantry and cavalry. Success in this stage of the war Protestant Swedish army obliged actions.
Army of Gustavus II Adolf broke Tilly and vderlasya troops to Bavaria - center concentration Catholic forces in Germany.
To save situation, the Emperor Ferdinand returned Wallenstein inflicted and gave him unlimited powers.
Being from grace Czech in their possession, Wallenstein inflicted watching deployment events. When he saw that Gustav II Adolf started to win, without hesitation proposed him services. Those Swedish king who fought on the side of Protestants, Wallenstein inflicted not concerned. King of Sweden refused, and it had fatal consequences for him.
Wallenstein inflicted quickly formed a new army and launched an offensive against the Swedes. The war began to acquire protracted. Opposing forces were essentially equal. In November 1632 near Leipzig, near the small town there was a battle Lyuttsena armies of Wallenstein inflicted and Gustav II Adolf. Both armies suffered heavy losses and were forced to retreat. Swedish king was killed in battle, and Protestant camp was left without a talented leader. Wallenstein inflicted went to the Czech Republic and started negotiations with the Protestants of peace. Catholic leaders envious leagues have used this as an excuse to accuse of treason Wallenstein inflicted. On early 1634 Wallenstein inflicted was removed from command, accused of treason, and for some time, killed by conspirators who acted on the orders Catholic League.
Fig. Wallenstein inflicted Murder
Imperial Army weak defeated the Swedish army in battle near Nerdlinhena in South Germany in September 1634 It seemed that luck again smiled military Habsburgs. However, the first Minister of France, Cardinal Richelieu decided it was while France take part in the war. He calculated everything just like in chess: join France the war has complicated the situation and the Habsburgs led to their final defeat.
6. French during the war (1635-1648 years)
Military action unfolded mostly in Germany, Spain and Spanish Netherlands. Already in the early years of this period was defined decisive advantage antyhabsburzkoyi coalition. Leadership role in the coalition came to France. Cardinal Richelieu wanted, using the attenuation of both sides, get all the possible political advantage.
To ensure advantages in the war Richelieu decided to take the service detachments of the Ukrainian Cossacks the glory of courage which was known far beyond their homeland. Government France through its ambassador in Warsaw where Brezhi hired to serve 2-2,5 thousand Cossacks led by Bohdan Khmelnytsky colonel and captains and Lassie Soltenkom. In 1645-1646 he Cossacks under the leadership of sulfur were part in the siege, the Spaniards seized the fortress of Dunkirk on the coast of the English Channel. The courage and decisive action Cossacks played a crucial role in obtaining it.
However, neither parties did not have enough strength to win. Until the early 40's he was already after the death of Cardinal Richelieu, defined benefit France and Sweden. Tim Time Habsburg alliance tried to change the course of the war in their favor.
In May, 1643 27000th Habsburg army invaded France, intending to reach decisive victory. A decisive battle took place near Rokrua. Habsburg Army was virtually destroyed. During the following years, the Habsburgs were new lesions. At 1646 Joint Swedish-French army won Bavaria, there possibility of division of Germany between Sweden and France and capture the capital Austria - Vienna. Under these conditions, the emperor Ferdinand III (1637-1657 biennium) had to take motivated by France and its allies extremely difficult conditions for German peace treaty.
7. Peace of Westphalia. Implications Thirty Years War in Europe
Talks of the victorious and defeated were conducted in two cities of Westphalia: from 1644 to Munster - between the ambassadors of the emperor and the French government, and from 1645 in Osnabr
October 24 1648 announced the signing of the Peace of Westphalia. Winners gained considerable territory: Sweden won the Eastern and Western part of Pomerania; France - Alsace land and final confirmation of rights to Lorraine. Germany as a state virtually ceased to exist, was affirmed its political fragmentation. Recognized the independence of Switzerland and Holland. Notwithstanding signing of the Peace of Westphalia, the war between Spain and France lasted until 1659, when peace was signed Iberian.
Fig. Signing of the Treaty of Westphalia Peace
Thirty Years' War caused significant changes in Europe. State winners France and Sweden strengthened its influence in European affairs. For Germany the war led to the most serious consequences. At 200 years was secured its political fragmentation, population decreased by 10 million souls. In the Czech Republic with three million people left 700 Most of the thousands of cities were destroyed, the land turned into a heath, trade and industry declined. Effect of Habsburg in Europe much poslabshav. Austrian Habsburgs limited influence Austria, and in Germany it completely lost. Spanish monarchy also lost influence on European policy.
Documents. Facts. Comments
Historian R. Vipper about features Thirty Years War
"This long war was possible only special conditions for recruitment of soldiers and their maintenance. Wallenstein inflicted expressed this the words "war feeds war". Soldiers recruited as workers for the building; capital for their compensation were conquest and plunder ...
These soldiers could not keep up discipline. They were transformed after the victory or the taking of the beast. Often they are cut or hung the entire male population, taking prey set fire to villages. When Tilly took the rich .. Magdeburg, the Cathedral were fifty women cut off their heads, soldiers from the laughter of children nastromlyuvaly peaks. On Citizens request for a pardon Tilly said: "Wait another hour, I 'll see what can be done, it must be to give the soldier something after so many hazards and work. " According to another chief, to keep order among them, It took more than gallows than buildings, ropes and more than trees. Wallenstein inflicted attracted above all that gave their soldiers full freedom.
1. What gave possibility of participating countries to conduct such a long war?
2. Give your assess the actions of Army soldiers Wallenstein inflicted.
1. What European countries participated in the Thirty Years' War? What was their purpose?
2.Describe the international situation in Europe before the war.
3.Describe the policy of the Habsburgs in Europe on the eve of the Thirty Years War.
4. Why conflict in the Czech Republic became the first pan start the war?
5. Name The main periods of war. Give a description of each of hostilities periods.
6. Fold A. Wallenstein inflicted historical portrait.
7. Describe consequences of the Thirty Years War for Europe.
8. Fold Table "The course of military operations during the Thirty Years War on the scheme:
Note the dates:
1618-1648 gg - Thirty Years War.
1648 - Peace of Westphalia.