Subject V. CULTURE Western Europe in XVI-XVII centuries.
§ 13. Arts Renaissance in Europe
1. As church influence on the culture of the Middle Ages?
2. As changed view of the world in XI-XIII centuries.?
1. Arts Features Revival
European culture of this period was divided into two eras - Renaissance and Baroque. Cradle of Renaissance art, or Renaissance, considered Italy. It reopened Italian masters the art of ancient Greece and Ancient Rome, whence comes the name and age. The new art emerged based on humanism. Humanists claimed the highest value of human thought she has undeniable right to free development and implementation of their opportunities. Outstanding masters Renaissance was characterized by their versatility gifted: they combine with painting, architecture, sculpture, literature, philosophy with the study of exact sciences. Creative Masters Renaissance laid the foundations of European culture of the modern age.
Supreme flourishing Renaissance art reached during the High Renaissance (late XV - The First Decade XVI cent.) - "Golden Age" Italian literature, fine arts, philosophy and science. These were Titans during the Renaissance, that laid the foundation for a new understanding of the world and human place in it. Under the influence of Italian Renaissance art in the spread Nordic countries. Here, the formation of a new culture of decisive influence was not an ancient heritage and Christianity.
The Renaissance initiating significant changes in the outlook of people, their religious and political convictions. Began a new type of person who was more rozkripachenoyu spiritually and convinced myself than before. New ideas of making its way in the fight against official religious teachings, preparing a revolution in outlook People on 3 years of the Reformation. That is why this period is called the epoch Renaissance and Reformation.
2. Leonardo da Vinci(1452-1519) was born in Florence. In the age of 14 he began to study painting. However, this did not stop - Lifelong hard studied various sciences. Perhaps no area of human knowledge, which would not interest Leonardo. He was asked in mathematics, anatomy, different technologies, building aircraft and submarines, in his account, you can find descriptions helicopter, parachute, car, poison gas, phone, etc.. Perpetuity his knowledge was amazing then and now.
Leonardo-painter worked very slowly, constantly searching, experimenting. Painting was for it means knowing the world. He gazed into the faces of people trying to understand their inner world and bring in their paintings. In general, he wrote about half a dozen pictures, but each of them was a consummate work of high art.
In one of its early works "Madonna with flower Leonardo abandoned the usual image sad and wistful Madonna described her cheerful, full of women beauty. In this film he first used svitotin for "revival" of the object.
In the heyday her talent Leonardo created a fresco on the Biblical theme of "The Last Supper" (1495-1497 biennium). The basis of murals - the gospel story of how during Supper Christ before his execution said students that one of them betrays him. Expressions Face of Christ's disciples are filled with indignation, surprise, horror and perverse face of Judas handed with an impressive depth of realism.
One of became the most famous works of Leonardo portrait of Mona Lisa, the wife of a merchant del Gioconda. This work is considered to be the first in Western European painting psychological portrait. Painter has managed to focus the viewer is on the outside attractiveness of the Mona Lisa, and her internal world. Peering into her elderly face, feel the will and intellect, it seems that is not considered by the viewer, she barely hidden smile is following him. Now this picture is in Paris Louvre Museum. In this picture zakohuvalys, her hated by her kinchaly suicide, but finally to understand and unravel its secrets so and failed.
Leonardo was proud and independent. Throughout life poneviryavsya not wanting to serve anyone, and died in exile in France May 2, 1519
3. Michelangelo Buonarroti (1475-1564). If Leonardo had the luck thinker, the Michelangelo - The eternal rebel. He constantly battled against envy, misunderstanding, even against himself, and proved that man can do the impossible for his short life.
Michelangelo did the subject of their works man. No landscape is not interested in the wizard - just beautiful images of the human body. In his great marble "David" five-meter height of it, contrary to biblical mifovi, described the boy did not, and blossoming young man full of titanic forces. This statue was also a return ancient symbol of beauty in art, and an ideal new man, embodiment of unshakable will and power.
Working on painted ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, Michelangelo one of 1508 to 1512 600 square painted. m ceiling height of 18 meters scenes from the biblical myths. But his songs are far from traditional religious content, they heard the anthem human greatness and beauty.
The same strength and inspired to put it in the shape of the tomb of Moses for Pope Julius II. In interpretation of Michelangelo's Moses - a powerful leader, who in those days do not have enough split Italy.
Michelangelo was most independent of all the Italian Renaissance artists. At the request of Pope make it a huge Roman statue replied in a letter: "The fact that I do or do not .. so let us decide who contribute to this. "
Michelangelo lifted sculpture to a new level. Some time ago, considering the ancient statue, he said that its author "... knew more than nature itself." These words with complete and the reason can be attributed to Michelangelo himself.
4. Raphael(1483-1520). He called the light of the genius of Italian Renaissance, which managed to combine the spirit of antiquity with the spirit of Christianity. During his short life Rafael was able to do very much like an artist. In his works he reproduced subtle human emotions, spiritual and physical beauty of the characters. This new ideal of man he first affirmed in numerous portraits and images of Madonna. The peak of creativity Raphael believe created in 1513 "Sistine Madonna". An interesting composition is a picture: curtain opens, and we see a woman holding a baby before, the woman at the same time gives the child, and wants to keep her in her look - sadness, anxiety for the fate of the child, which she sacrifices in the name of salvation. We see not just Madonna, but a woman, mother who suffers, like every man. In creating a generalized image perfect man - the main sense of creativity Rafael.
5. Maroon Vechellio(1477-1576) was the most famous Italian artist Venetian school. Many Maroon attention paid biblical subjects ("Christ and Magdalena," "Putting in coffin). His images are full of inner peace, beauty, radiating inner light.
Superb heights reached in the art of Titian's portrait. Lucky him play different sometimes contradictory character traits of heroes: majesty, meanness, suspicion hypocrisy, cunning and more. The artist opened in his characters that they tried to hide, and finding unique, subtle means to this transfer. His portraits always been a characteristic feature - a dominant color, it happened in shades. The most famous among the portraits of Titian - Ippolito Medici, Charles V ". Particularly interesting is the portrait of Pope Paul III nephews, in which the author was able to show the collision of three different characters, none of which willing to accept others. Creativity Maroon with little effect on Other artists - Rubens, Velazquez, Rembrandt and others.
Great masters of Italian High Renaissance asserted their creativity in a society new ideals, new views in man and its place in the world.
6. Northern Renaissance.
Northern Renaissance Revival called culture in countries rozstashovanyh north of Italy: in Germany, the Netherlands, France and England. In these countries the culture of the Renaissance was not so poshyrennnya in Italy. But her creators were the world's masterpieces. Northern Renaissance unlike Italian drew inspiration not only in antiquity, but also in the works of gothic architecture and medieval theologians.
The most prominent thinker of the Northern Renaissance was Erasmus, was called "King of humanists.
Northern Renaissance art in the leading role belonged to the painting. Already in the XV Art. Art is in prime Netherlands, and the end of XV - First Half XVAnd art. - A "golden age" German painting. Among the best artists highlighted - Lucas Cranach the ElderWho wrote the famous portrait of Luther and Hans Holbeyn JuniorWho became court master of English kings and achieved excellence in the creation portraits. A strange mix of open world painting Yanna Van EynaWho worked in the first half of XV Art. In his portraits He tried not ideal and pure truth. So the people he portrayed is ugly. Even the Virgin Mary on his paintings devoid pravilnyh Fig. Its pretty face rather than beautiful. Achievements of the artists was the exact transfer surrounding things that have sown, perelyvalysya were natural. It succeeded thanks Netherlands invention of artists oil paint recipe that used and Italian masters.
Outstanding works of Northern Renaissance paintings are Pieter Brueghel the Elder. In his paintings there, along with beautiful ugly rodist tragedy. His paintings reflect the realities of the time. Some names speak for themselves: "Tryuf death" under vyselytseyu Dance, "" Blind, "" Calico ". His works of northern artists tried to show the reverse side of life - uncertainty in the future, fear, rushnennya lifestyles.
The centerpiece of German Renaissance art takes Albrecht D (1471-1528). It art shows dramatic events of German history at the time. Durer remarkable characteristic of the Renaissance masters variety of tastes: he interest in anatomy, mathematics, engineering, manufacturing and painting prints.
One of the best works of A. D
Thus, Northern Renaissance, which is younger than the Italian one hundred years, pereymalosya problems surrounding world, the conditions of everyday life, fear changes. Italian masters had seen in man sublime, heroic, hoping to liberation and emancipation rights in the future.
Documents. Facts. Comments
From the results of Leonardo da Vinci
My subjects were born with a simple and pure experience, which is a real teacher. "
"All our knowledge begins with the senses. If the instrument is made by screw, well done ... and quickly put in rotation - called the screw twists into the air and lifted up. "
"[If] a person has a tent with prokrohmalenoho blade width 12 cubits high and 12 cubits, it can throw without danger to himself from any height.
"Take a glass eye to see the moon great.
"I do not write about their means to remain under water as long as you can stay without food. This is not obnaroduyu I declare by the evil breed of people who would use this tool for murder seabed, the bottom of ships and prolamuyuchy toplyachy them with people. "
"People will speak with each of many countries and meet each other. "
1. As Leonardo da Vinci explains the appearance of their discoveries?
2. What predicted future inventions of Leonardo da Vinci?
1. What is Renaissance culture? What qualities inherent?
2. Tell us what you know about the work of Leonardo da Vinci.
3. What characteristics inherent creativity of Michelangelo?
4. What was contribution to the culture of the High Renaissance of Raphael Santi?
5. Tell us so consider Maroon founder of a new direction in art portrait.
6. What was common in the works of great masters of Italian Renaissance?
7. Define basic ideas and ideals inherent in the Italian Renaissance.
8. Prepare, using additional literature, a story about one of the masters Renaissance or about his work.
9. Name the leading masters of Northern Renaissance.
10. What features work Albrecht Durer?