Subject VІ. PaulPlishment and Moscow EMPIRE STATE
§ 17. Rzeczpospolita
1. What you Krevsk know about the union? Why it was signed?
2. What were reason Livonian War and its aftermath?
3. What you know about the participation of Ukrainian Cossacks in 1620-1621 Khotyn war years?
1. Polish city in the XVI - XVII century.
In the first half XVI century. Poland gripped by economic growth. Under his influence, a huge number new cities. Warsaw, which has grown from a small settlement in the XVI century. became the new capital of the kingdom instead of Krakow. Polish merchants were brisk trade with Germany, Hungary, Italy, Scandinavia, the Moscow State. There were cloth, linen, leather, paper, glass and other manufactures.
Nevertheless, the period growth of Polish cities did not last long. The reasons were several. First, Turkish conquest of the Balkan peninsula wiped out all south-eastern trade. Second, although the demand for agricultural products in Europe prompted the development of trade on the Vistula and on the Baltic Sea, this trade does not bring big profits city merchant class, and magnates and gentry who have made King the right to duty-free export their products abroad. In addition, King has not done anything to protect Polish producers from foreign competition, which also caused decline of cities. It was created favorable conditions for admission to the country foreign goods that meet the interests of the magnates and gentry, but inflicted significant losses cities.
The result Economic decline was the Polish cities in the second half of XVI century. Merchants zhortaly their activities manufactury production degraded. Therefore Poland is not formed strong third estate bourgeois entrepreneurs, which in Western Europe contributed to form the basis for new society.
2. Appearance filvarkovoho Economy
In the XVI century. Poland there was a transition from the medieval system to Obrochne filvarkovoho - panschynnoho economy. Filvarok - diversified economy in which all land belonged to the lord and that based on the labor of peasants who vidroblyaly serfdom.
Reasons was few. First, growing cities, increased the urban population and increased demand for agricultural products. Second, due to the influx of gold to Europe after the great geographical discoveries began intensive development of capitalist relations, leading to an increase demand for food, agricultural products and raw materials for manufactories. The landowners turned their economy on Filvarky to increase commercial production. Commodity products - products that goods not for their own consumption and for sale on the market.
У XVI century. in Poland still remained although serfdom form of exploitation of farmers has changed. Thus, according with Polish law, in 1518 Polish farmers lost the right to protect their rights in court and were tried their masters. In 1543, it was forbidden farmers transition from one master to another. Now gentlemen had the opportunity to legally enforce the exploitation of peasants to obtain more profits. In manors boon reached six days a week. In addition to growing bread, in the manor and built their own processing plants - mills, distilleries etc..
Especially difficult situation happened after the introduction of manors in Ukrainian lands. 1557 the Polish King and Grand Duke of Lithuania Sigismund II Augustus took "Charter for drawing dies, according to which public lands were divided into drawing dies - 19,5 ha. Norm inheritance became one of voloka yard. Surplus land transferred gentry under Filvarky.
3. Magnates, nobles and peasants
The main social classes that Poland were feudal lords - the magnates and the nobility, dependent farmers and commoners.
Magnate were great landowners, that came from old families - Radziwill, Оstrozkyh, Konetspolskyh, Chodkiewicz et al. Third villages in Poland was in the property tycoons. Big possession they had in Ukrainian lands. Yes, Ostroz'ki received annually about 1 million zloty profits from its 100 cities and castles and 1300 villages in Ukraine.
Financial might give you magnates have significant impact on internal and Poland's foreign policy.
Shlyakhtich - Dribnopomisne nobility - possessed one or two villages, and even half of the village. Since joining Ukrainian lands to Poland's lower middle and middle nobility began to invade the fertile land of Ukraine. Some nobles thanks seized Ukrainian lands become a great tycoon - Zamoyski, Lubomirski, Potocki. The vast most of the petty nobility supported some of the magnates. With the nobility magnates sought from the King decision-making them profitable.
Farmers in Poland were in serfdom of the magnates and gentry. In XVI Art. peasants deteriorated significantly, they have lost any personal and legal rights. "I do not know any other Christian kingdoms in the world - wrote court preacher Jesuit Peter complaint - which cost so badly with peasants, as in our ".
Burghers at that time in Poland dependent on the policies conducted by the magnates and gentry. In 1565 the Diet Pressure nobility decided to ban the export of goods abroad Polish merchants. This had negative consequences for development of cities, and nobility received the same opportunities to generate revenue from trade. Moreover Gentry dictate the prices of goods in urban areas, limited the rights of townspeople take state positions. Antymischanska policy nobility significantly weakened the position of cities and resulted in negative consequences for the future.
4. Reformation and Counter Reformation
Possession Catholic Church in Poland were in the XVI century. almost one fifth of lands. The church was a large landowner, collected tithes and other church taxes from the people.
In 20-ies XVI century. in Poland spread Reformation ideas. The peculiarity of the Polish Reformation movement was its diversity and lack of unified direction, supported by the majority population.
After the speech Luther's great popularity in Poland, especially among city residents, has gained Lutheranism.
In the 30's of the XVI century. Calvinism spread in Poland. His ideas supported by the nobility and magnates who saw in it an opportunity to achieve greater independence from central government and get the church lands. But Protestants in Poland started not armed struggle for the realization of his views, beyond their propaganda. These movements covered only the nobles and barons, and the vast majority of peasants stuck Catholic faith. In cities that fell into decay, as it did not of such public forces, which could support the Reformation.
At the end of the XVI century. in Poland strengthened and eventually won the Catholic Counter-Reformation. The first was provide active assistance in the Catholic Church against the Reformation, King Stefan Batory. It was by his government actively deployed Jesuits.
During the reign Sigismund III, who belonged to the fanatical supporters of Catholicism, Protestantism in Poland was virtually destroyed. Facilitated the victory over him Sigismund III that Protestantism did not support the peasant masses, Protestants were divided in different directions and did not have a single organization. King forbade Protestants to hold public office that reduced Protestantism popularity among the nobility. Besides this influence of the Jesuits, as in Poland, did not know any country in Europe. They actually conquered the whole system education and through his supporters organized pogroms against Protestants. Zakripyvshys in Poland, the Jesuits began to advance on the Ukrainian Orthodox lands. It was to spread Catholicism to Ukrainian lands were made 1596 Union of Brest, where the Orthodox Church in Ukraine switched supremacy of the pope.
5. Change on the dynasty royal throne
Feature political development of Poland in the XVII century. was that it fell through absolute monarchy, and formed "Gentry republic ". Nobility elected king. Elective king had no right to make important decisions without the consent of the Diet, composed of Senate and Chamber Ambassadors.
Royalty weakened. Often magnates were more influential and wealthier than the king. The real power in the state belonged to the magnate, who was elected King of who their arranged.
In 1572, died Sigismund II Augustus. With him ended the dynasty Jagiellonian. If the election until the new king was a purely formal act, since then it has gained more character - the king chose the voting chambers of the Diet. The first elected king was Henry Valois (1573-1574 biennium). A few months later he returned to France by Henry III. His name associated signing Henrihovyh articles. In this document the king was not right to appoint his successor, approve or cancel the decision Diet declare war, conclude peace, to convene a militia. In case of violation King of these conditions magnates and gentry were entitled to raise rebellion against him and deprive them of power. Run these conditions was required and a new king Stefan Batory (1576-1586 biennium). He managed to turn the power of authority of a king, but if signed by Henry, had to perform. In 1587 King was elected Sigismund III (1587-1632), who initiated the Polish Vaziv dynasty throne. In Poland, the new King led the fight against Protestants, and abroad led an extremely active foreign policy, failing to engage country in all wars and disputes that there were at that time.
Fig. Stefan Batory and
6. Union of Lublin
Polish state constantly sought to expand its borders to the east. Activity kings, to join the Polish lands new territories found support of the population. Magnates and gentry wanted to get new tenure as free land in Poland is actually no more; commoners and merchants were interested in new markets and developing trade relations; Catholic clergy sought to spread Catholicism to the new land.
On this ground for beginning of the XVI century. age were provided for closer union between the Polish Kingdom and Grand Duchy of Lithuania.
The reasons for association with the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in Poland were few. First, Polish magnates and nobles sought Ukrainian lands, which belonged to of Lithuania. Another reason was that then stepped up its promotion in west of Moscow State Livonsk long war, and in Lithuania, and Poland understood that only together can resist the expansion of Muscovy. But it should noted that the Grand Duchy of Lithuania were opponents of the union, especially - the Ukrainian and Belarussian gentry who did not want to spread the influence Catholic Church.
In January 1569 in Lublin King Sigismund II Augustus called the joint Lithuanian-Polish Sejm for address the issue of union (union) the two countries. Representatives of Lithuania and Poland put forward two different projects of the Union. Lithuanian draft contains provisions for individual authorities in each country, formed only of its nationals, a separate penny more. The Polish project was proposed to merge Lithuania and Poland into a single state with one king and joint authorities. Lithuanian Poles Project rejected as unacceptable. After learning that the king and took the side Polish project, the Lithuanian delegation decided to drive off to frustrate the Diet. However, among the delegation members were split: big tycoons left the Diet, and gentry decided to support the Polish project, hoping for the privilege from the Polish king.
Fig. Formation of the Commonwealth. Polish state in XVI – XVII Art.
In March 1569 with the consent of the Polish magnates and gentry king issued to take the wagon in Lithuania and Poland joining the Podlasie and Volhynia, and later, Kyiv and Bratslavshchina. In this way, almost all Ukrainian lands were a part Poland. Weakened Livonian War Lithuania offered resistance. To attract its side attached to the local gentry lands, King equalized the rights of its Polish. Indignant such abusive Lithuanian magnates returned to the Diet and Lithuania tried to protect the rights to these lands, but in vain.
The Union was signed July 1, 1569 in Lublin. Formed a single state Rzeczpospolita (Republic of) with a single elective king, diet, coin. Remained separate seal, local administration, finance, the army.
Fig. Union of Lublin (with a picture of Jan Matejko)
With the Lublin Union Lithuania lost its state and maintained some autonomy only to a much smaller area. Union contributed to the expansion of Polish, Ukrainian and Belarusian lands. These territory actively nasadzhuvavsya Catholicism. A growing social oppression after seizure of land by Polish magnates and gentry; introduced filvarkova system management. Began active spolschennya Lithuanian, Ukrainian and Belarusian elites. Vast experience in the field of Lithuanian princes state was ignored in future lead to catastrophic consequences, including including for most of Poland. Before the Ukrainian and Belarusian people faced threat of their destruction as a separate ethnic groups.
7. Participation in the Commonwealth Livonian War. Fighting Sweden
After the conclusion of Union invaded Poland in Livonsk war (1558-1583 biennium), in which Lithuania served on the side of the Livonian Order. Poles understand that the victory of Moscow States in the war will lead to a substantial strengthening of the latter, and therefore decided go to war against it.
Stephen King Batory was able to cause significant blows the army of Ivan the Terrible. In 1579 Polish army captured Polotsk and Pskov siege began. In 1582 Stephen Batory signed an agreement with Moscow, under which she had leave Livonia.
This agreement was great success. Poland stopped promoting the Moscow state, not allowing her master land Livonian Order.
Soon, however, Poland had to fight a war with Sweden in Livonia. This war continued intermittently from 1600 to 1635 in war with Riga Liflyandiyeyu went to Sweden and remained with the Courland Speeches Commonwealth. This division did not suit either of the parties and the 20 years war erupted again.
8. Polish-Turkish War
Been connected by Lublin Union Ukrainian lands, Poland had to pay attention to their defense lands. Ukrainian Cossacks who defended their lands against the Tatars and conducted themselves trips to the Turkish coast, now found themselves under the authority of the Polish king. At the end of XVI - early XVII. Relations between Poland and the Ottoman Empire sharply worsened.
In 1620 Turkish-Tatar army acted against Poland. The Turkish army to vderlasya Moldavia and Wallachia. During Cecora KSS near the Polish army Hetman Zolkiewski was completely defeated by the Turks, and the Zolkiewski killed. Left without an army, king of Poland had to have recourse to the Cossacks. Because of talks in Warsaw on Cossack delegation led by Hetman P. Sahaidachny mutually agreed performance 40000th Cossack troops to help Poland.
Meanwhile on Poland advancing 260,000th Turkish-Tatar army led by Sultan Osman II. In 1621, the two armies - the Turkish and Polish - met at Town Chernivtsi. The Polish army commanded K. Khodkevych, Cossack army that came to its members - Mr. Sahaidachny. Fighting between the two armies lasted for 40 days.
"In fights under Khotin 1621 brunt of Turks were directed to the Cossack camp - wrote historian I. Krypiakevych - and the Cossacks and their defense attacks took a great fame throughout Europe - panegyrists compared them with the Spartans defended Thermopylae from Persia. Cossack troops invaded the camp of the sultan beat him and forced Osman II to begin peace talks.
Due to victory near Hotina Poland could stop the advance of the Ottoman Empire at its land but it is obliged to prevent attacks on Turkish Cossacks and possession their maritime journeys.
This protysloyannya Poland and the Ottoman Empire ceased. Two States have not once had to try one's strength forces in furthering XVII art.
9. "The Great Deluge." Decline Speeches Commonwealth
In the middle of the XVII art. fate Poschi endured great trials, which the Poles called the "Great Flood". Country on the verge of disappearing from the map. Beginning this poklolo confrontation with the authorities Ukrainian Cossacks, which began an armed struggle for defending their privileges and in defense of the Ukrainian people and the church oppression against the Poles. Pereodychni end rebellion XVAnd - beginning of XVII art. ultimately resulted in the national liberation War of the Ukrainian people led by B. Khmelnitsky, which began in 1648 was The bloody war that was fought with varying very successful exhausted both sides. Eventually in 1654 to the present conflict has joined Moscow State, which pursued own interests. In 1655 Poland started the war against Sweden, which effectively actually captures the Polish lands. In this difficult situation, the Poles managed to Sweden defeat and make peace, having lost only Prussian principality vassal (1660 City), after a long struggle to find common language with Russia, divided Ukrainian lands in half (Andrusiv peremyrrya 1667 and "Eternal Peace" 1683 City), another Turkish deter aggression vidkupyvshys parts skirts and Right Bank Ukraine. These costly war Rech - population decreased from 4,5 to 1,8 million people.
The decisive role played by Poles against the nobility, which further strengthened its position. Since 1652 the Polish Diet was established order "Free veto" under which all decisions of the Diet were approved unanimously. Since then, a fool or a drunken nobleman exclamation "Allow confines" ("No let! ") tore the adoption of important laws. Legislative activity Diet practically ceased. The country established political anarchy. This crisis led to a gradual decline in Poland.
The last outbreak of the Commonwealth is on the reign of King Jan Sobieski. Even being the hetman (military commander), he inflicted another defeat Turks on the tail and in 1683 rescued Vienna from the last Turkish siege. Thus was finally stopped the Turkish aggression in Europe and renewed southern border of Poland (1699).
However, early XVIII. Poland found itself depending on the neighboring states, and in late solittya ceased to exist as an independent state: its territory was redistributed between Russia, Austria and Prussia.
У ХVІ-ХVII art. Poland has made significant progress in the development of culture. As Erasmus of Rotterdam wrote: "I congratulate the people who - Though once considered barbaric - is now so well developed in science, law, religion and in all that is contrary vsilyashiy neotesanosti and can compete with the most cultural nations. This thinkers had on seeing the "golden age" of Polish culture, which fell on ХVAnd art. Quick progress of Polish culture was Renaissance is due to trends that take on Polish soil brought young Poles, studied in Italian, German and French universities. Moreover, Poland itself has begun a massive foundation schools, which brought yideyi Renaissance. Awakened interest in books in our society. Thanks created Polish King Sigismund Augustus mail began more active cultural influence of West. Unprecedented interest in science and discoveries embraced and Poland. Yes, with Maciej Fur made a treatise on two Sarmatia ", which made the description of Eastern Europe and Asia. Bernard Vapovskyy were famous chronicler development of large maps of Europe. Have become very popular to use historical works Marcin Belsky Marcin Cromer, Lukasz Hurnytskoho. Experiencing prosperity and fiction. Thanks to the works of Nicholas Ray and Jan Kakhovskoe laid foundations Polish literary language. But the top of the "golden age" is a scientific activity N. Copernicus.
Art of the Renaissance had a great impact on architecture. Construct Residence magnates, gentry estates, which are decorated with many decorative elements. , Again a phenomenon that era was the establishment of nobles and burghers in the church nahrobnyh monumental sculptures. Under the influence of Renaissance art sculptures were realistic image.
Center for diffusion of new cultural phenomena was the royal court. It is for King Sigismund Augustus became fashionable to invite the court artists and painters. The symbol of the new cultural influence was rebuilt in Renaissance style vevelskyy lock.
ХVII art. brought and a new cultural influences. This time spread on the territory of the Commonwealth Polish, or as it is called Sarmatian, Baroque. Major role in its distributing Catholic played several churches that sought after Tredenskoho Cathedral art means to influence believers. The new style was also rebuilt the castle in Warsaw, Where in 1596 he moved the royal court. Grandeur and beauty of the royal castle and churches sought naslidovaty and Polish magnates. In the first half of XVII art. countries experienced a real construction boom. All those new palaces decorated with precious paintings. Created theaters. After tragedy ceredyny century massive building restored, rebuilt the previous building, which is why Poland preserved many monuments of that era.
Also influenced the development of Polish culture in that period, the formation ideals, values and customs of the nobility. They were named sarmatyzm (Polish drawing the nobles descended from the Sarmatians). In fact sarmatyzm a friend stream of Polish culture in that period. He combined elements of both Western Culture and east. This, for example, manifested in language: Polish language became actively prypravlyatysya Latin words. Garment nobles too was strange combination elemniv Fashion East and West. Sarmatyzm also spawned a sense of Polish culture over the superiority of neighboring peoples in vylyvalosya Polish influence and catholization process.
Documents. Facts. Comments
1. Lublin Union of 1569
Polish Kingdom and Grand Duchy Lithuania, by the previous incorporation between them - an indivisible body, one collection, one nation, so that from now on in this one of two people meeting, immediate connection of the people and almost single, homogeneous, and nerozriznyuvanoho indivisible body will be in perpetuity one head, not individual derzhavtsi, and one - Polish king, who, according to ancient custom and privilege, joint Poland and Lithuania votes will be elected in Poland but not in another place ...
Benefits and freedom of Lithuania
Considered and taken steps to ensure that it Unity and Union Grand Duchy of Lithuania with Poland in nothing undermined, not abused and reduced the rights, privileges, liberties and customs of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, which are not contrary Polish people: Conversely, the rights, privileges, freedom and customs both parties by mutual Council to strengthen and augment ...
Right Poles and Lithuanians
All laws and ordinances, even if that were though for some reason published in Lithuania against the Polish people, on training Anything higher and whose posts are transferred and entrusted to us, as on estates and lands on the purchase of land and ownership in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania ... - All such laws, with the consent of all ranks, and destroying to nothing ... Now the Poles in Lithuania and Lithuanian in Poland may buy goods and settle in all legitimate means, and can legally hold office in the land, which will osilist; what to spiritual posts then we will freely distribute them at our discretion, as it was still not paying osilist attention to the person in the country.
What were the conditions Union of Lublin?
1. What changes in urban development took place in the XVI-XVII centuries.? Identifies their implications for development Poland.
2.Describe the changes in agriculture of Poland in the XVI century.
3. What was situation magnates, gentry and peasants?
4. Specify features of spreading the ideas of the Reformation in Poland.
5. What is Counter? As she was held in Poland?
6. What changes in political structure of Poland took place in the XVI century.?
7. What you know about the Lublin union? What are the causes and consequences of signing it?
8. What was due to participation of Poland in the Livonian War?
9. Tell the Polish-Turkish war 1620-1621 biennium and participation in Ukrainian Cossacks.
10. Identify and Describe the basic directions of foreign policy of Poland.
Note the dates:
1569 - Union of Lublin.
1600-1622, 1625-1629, 1655-1660 biennium - the Polish-Swedish War
1620-1621, 1672-1673, 1683-1699 biennium - Polish-Turkish War
1648 - Beginning of national liberation war of Ukrainian people during by B. Khmelnitsky
1683 - "Eternal Peace" with Russia