§ 18. Strengthening Muscovy under Ivan IV
1. As Moscow State formed?
2. What you aware of the activities of state-of John III?
3. What were authorities at the Moscow State?
At a time when Western European countries laid the foundations of a new European civilization, in eastern Europe has a large political force - Muscovy. From this small kingdom at the beginning of new era shall not have a noticeable impact on European events, a Russian empire, which in the XVIII century. not be not be considered in European affairs. In the history of Muscovy XVI century. Primarily, this day of Ivan IV the Terrible. This king left a noticeable trace in history: the state has increased and strengthened at the beginning of his reign and put to the brink of death of the late reign.
1. Muscovy at the beginning of the XVI century.
During the reign Moscow Tsar Vasily III of his country twice traveled ambassador of Emperor Holy Roman Empire Baron Sigismund der Herbershteyn (1486-1566). For a long time he lived in Moscow, acquainted with the life and customs of its people, history and parade for the country which Europeans considered the East. In 1549, he gave in Vienna on their "records moskovitski case "that allow to see through the eyes of Europeans on Muscovy XVII.
Ambassador Emperor Muscovy described as huge vast plain covered with thick forests. He saw field, which is not yet vykorchuvaly stumps of trees. However, the area between the Volga and Okoyu were already densely populated - there happened many villages, and sometimes surrounded wooden walls of the fortress city. Muscovy population at that time amounted about nine million souls, and its population density - from 0,3 to 8 people per 1 square. km (in Western Europe's average population density was 35 people per 1 square. km). Moscow was large town - about 50 thousand people. Around the stone Kremlin, where he lived the king Trading lines were located and palaces of the boyars, surrounded by a second stone wall. Behind them on the banks of the Moskva River and stretched Yauzy village merchants and artisans.
Habitations artisans and merchants were wooden huts, covered with a shingle roof. They were heated as Russians, said, "in Black": there were no chimneys, and smoke coming out through small window in the roof.
Boyarskaya three-and storey houses were surrounded by a wooden fence. In mica windows inserted. Among the numerous "chamber" boyar house occupied a special place female "Palace" where Eastern tradition boyars kept under lock their wives and daughters. Dressed as boyars to the east like: brocade robes worn with long, almost to the ground sleeves, high fur hats, caftan, fur coats. Herbershteyn with zanotuvav surprise that the favorite pastime was drinking boyars, which sometimes lasted for several days without interruption. Imagine how much z'yidalosya and vypyvalosya during those feasts, it was simply impossible. Obesity was a sign znatnosti and prosperity, boyars so specifically went vypnuvshy stomach. Another feature was a long znatnosti beard.
Boyars had hereditary possession - estates, that included dozens of villages with their inhabitants. The peasants were personally dependent on their owners. Leave your host they could only once a year - in Yuriyiv day, paying ransom him for the loss employee.
Boyars considered themselves Moscow land owners could judge and punish their peasants, and the king only pay tax.
And no matter how were large estates, the majority of Muscovy were not dependent boyars, and the free peasants who lived on land which belonged to the king. Peasants lived community - "peace." Much of the agricultural work performed together with all communities. This was a significant difference from Muscovy Europe.
Education has not acquired special distribution among the population. Even most boyars could not read and write. The centers of culture and education were the monasteries. Herbershteyn wrote that when Russians, he suggested that European maps and asked them to map their country, it could not get anything: the Muscovy did not exist yet geographical maps.
Authorities in Moscow King impressed by its immensity of the imperial ambassador and unboundedness. Ambassador gazed in astonishment at the customs of Muscovy. For him, she, like most Europeans, was mysterious and obscure Eastern countries.
2. The beginning of the reign of Ivan IV
In the XVI century. in Muscovy took place the process of absolute monarchy in the form autocracy - No limited power of the king, which excluded the existence of other independent or partially independent princes.
Autocracy utverdzhuvalos in fierce fighting against the boyars. Kings relied on it in nobilityWhich received land only provided service to the king.
In years of Basil III (1505-1533 biennium) was complete unification of Muscovy, connected Pskov, Smolensk, Ryazan principality in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania selected Ukrainian Chernihiv-Sivershchyna. At the end of Basil III board under it was in 2800 ths. km. Moscow was the biggest kingdom largest country in the world.
After death Basil III of Moscow's throne was his son three Ivan IV (1533-1584 biennium), and State actually led by his mother Helen Glinskaya. She tried to keep power to his son, breaking the boyar conspiracy. In 1538 Elena Glinskaya suddenly died (according to legend, it was poisoned). In fact, the government moved to rival boyar factions.
This struggle is imposed imprint on the character of the future king.
Fig. Abraham Lincoln
The figure in the history of
The fate of Moscow Tsar Ivan IV the Terrible - an example of how smart talented person gradually degraded by the environment. From early childhood, surrounded by flatteries and lies, betrayals and intrigues, Ivan IV did not trust anybody, did not have permanent friends and enemies. His politics changed from the development of reforms "chosen council" oprychnyy through terror to ordinary murder those who interfere with him. In 54 years he looked like old man, his health was destroyed by debauchery and drunkenness. Killing her own son in a fit of rage - that is what this man has reached the end his life.
Nobility anarchy Moscow continued to the kingdom in 1547 when Ivan IV was crowned at kingdom and was officially proclaimed king.
The situation in the country demanded urgent measures to restore order, peace between Boyar aristocracy and nobility. With a view to reconciliation Ivan IV created a "council selected, which included members of the nobility, the church, the boyars. "Selected council developed reforms, which had strengthened the state and strengthen the power of the king.
3. Strengthening of the nobility
Even during childhood Ivan IV saw and understood that the boyars never will support royal power, so he decided to rely on the nobility, which is entirely dependent on his favor.
In 1549 in Moscow's house met a local church. Council does not restrict the power king, and was an advisory body which included representatives from all states except peasantry.
At the Cathedral reconciliation, as it was called, Ivan IV sharply condemned the boyars for their abuse and said that forgiving them past guilt and betrayal. The king announced preparation of a new compendium of laws - Sudebnyka who had secured the changes their king was about to introduce.
Dumnyi lecturer John Peresvyetov at the suggestion of the king, a draft of these reforms. The model for the change he believed the Ottoman Empire, where the sultan used Unlimited power, and all subjects were considered to be his servants. He anticipated limit in Moscow's authority and power of boyars, based on the nobility. These latter Peresvyetov felt it was necessary to fully support, put forward for public positions. The basis of the army also had a nobility of men. For his service to the king nobles were to receive pay.
Reforms of Ivan IV led to occurrence in the life of the Moscow State features present eastern civilizations (On these features you will find a pattern XI).
4. State and Church
Orthodox Church occupied a dominant position in the Moscow kingdom. She supported the king in his struggle to strengthen the state. In the XVI century. in Moscow were viewed as world center of Orthodoxy, the "third Rome".
At the end of XV - to beginning of the XVI century. among the Orthodox Church began to spread views about the need for change in the relationship between church and state - heresy. These heresy in nature away from the Western reform movement. Distinguished by two trends - yosyflyany "and" nestyazhateli.
Leader "Nestyazhateliv was Neil Sorskyy. Speaking for the moral purification of the church, against persecution of heretics, he believed that the church should not own land and monasteries, but should pay their state and focus on spiritual development themselves and the laity.
Glance yosyflyan " formulated the abbot of the monastery Volotskij Joseph. He angrily denounced heretics, who sought to weaken the church, claimed to fight against them until the end, defending monastery raids. Joseph wanted to raise the authority of the church in society by strengthening discipline in the monasteries and destruction of any libertine, called for a union church with the king's authority. The most dangerous catholicity he considered "nestyazhatelstvo.
Throne backing yosyflyan. Instead, Joseph Volotskij advanced the idea of divine origin of royal power.
Stoglav Cathedral 1551 (The decision was recorded in 100 sections) to affirm the right of the church own lands. But Ivan IV managed to get the situation under which new lands Church could only obtain permission from the king, and this raised the prestige of its power.
Unlike Western Europe, where kings obey authority of the Pope, the Moscow church has recognized the power of the kingdom king.
5. Reforms of Ivan IV
Founded by Ivan IV "Selected council launched the activities of reform in Moscow kingdom.
In Zemsky Cathedral 1550 approved new Sudebnyk that increased centralization public administration. He limited the power of governors, freed nobles from their court. Sudebnyk confirmed the right of farmers switch from one to another holder once a year - in Yuriyiv day, but increased the amount that farmers had pay the previous owner.
There were new bodies central government - ordinance.They focus of individual sectors and policies. Executive orders appointed by the king. The most important among these new bodies were Ambassador's commandment (foreign policy), discharge (of the noble troops) The local (nobility tenure), a shooting (the organization Shooting troops).
In 1556 "Selected council cleared the system" kormlin, where locals held by the governor, and created local government "elected people" who appointed from the gentry.
It was made military reform. Created Rifle infantry troops and "selected a thousand - king's personal guard of the nobility. They became personal guard of the king. Since Did not the king depended boyar militia. Shooting groups lived in separate Sloboda, receive a regular salary, divided into six regiments of 500 soldiers. Were armed and pyschalyamy berdyshamy.
In 1556 was published "Articles About. According to him, and for the gentry-landlords, and Boyar-votchynnykiv was introduced mandatory military service term of 15 years. For their service, belonged to a fee. Every landowner 150 acres had to put a cavalryman.
Overall reform of the 50-ies XVI century. strengthened the power of the king weakened Boyars and increased importance of the nobility in Muscovy.
У 1558 by John King IV Livonsk started a war for access to Baltic Sea. But after the first troops began to win Moscow retreat, and the commander Prince A. Kurbsky switching sides enemy. Enraged King John IV, Who was called Terrible, everywhere saw the treason, punish the guilty and innocent.
З 1564 was established in Muscovy oprichnina (From Old Rus. "Besides" - "except that XIV-XV Art. meant special possession, allocated for use by members of the grand kind) - system of measures aimed at strengthening the imperial power. Essence Oprichnina namely, that John IVTerrible, Moscow residents nalyakavshy his sudden departure for Aleksandrovska settlement, resorted to massive repression, killings, land confiscations by suppressing the resistance of those who impeded his absolute rule.
King received in ownership of land - oprichnina, other lands - zemschyna boyars belonged. Oprichnina steadily increased through adding new lands zemschyny. Oprychne army killing thousands of people across the country. Only in Moscow martyred by Ivan the Terrible, supposedly for treason, 120 boyars and even metropolitan. The same fate befell the city - Novgorod, Klin, Tver. Too many people in the behavior of the king during Oprichnina noticed signs of mental illness.
In 1577 king oprichnina banned, lose many of Europe hit and even banned it on remember. But the king oprichnina brought great benefit. Thanks to John Terrible strengthened his power finally destroyed boyar opposition. How many people oprychnoho died during the years of terror in Muscovy? For centuries, foreigners believed that more than 10 million people. Interesting evidence of the death penalty of those times were "Necrology" (lists of commemoration) that rozsylav executed in commemoration of souls Ivan IV to the monasteries. According to historians, the number of persons referred to in those "necrology" pious Ivan IV, greater than 4 thousand These lists are real book memory of those hard times.
Fig. Moscow state in XVІ Art.
7. Foreign policy of Ivan IV
John IV foreign policy of the Moscow State became expansionist nature. Wars that were carried almost continuously, had to increase the territory of the Moscow State due to land neighbors. This trait was specific to the foreign policy of many contemporary states. But in the XVI century. Western States, not wishing to be pulled in long war with its neighbors, directed its expansion into the New World: won there land and turned them into their colony. For Moscow State became the object of colonizing the neighboring territory.Conquest in the interests of Muscovy, have contributed to strengthening its economic and territorial expansion, but had negative consequences for its neighbors. Conquered peoples were actually in colonial dependence on Muscovy, losing perspective of their own statehood.
Feature Moscow State was that the core of its state territory, which was formed to the XVI century., was involved in the global trade routes. In the event such ways controlled Sweden, Lithuania and Poland in the east and south - Crimean, Astrakhan and Kazan Khanate.
In 1548 Ivan IV started a war for the conquest of the Kazan Khanate. In October 1552 150,000th Moscow forces captured Kazan - capital of khanate. But after that Tatars for several years resisted the invaders. On the orders of Ivan IV of those who would not obey, destroyed or sent in Muscovy. There they were kept in specially built prisons, where inmates are offered and accept Orthodoxy live in monasteries, those who refused executed.
Conquered Kazan Muscovite army in 1556 without a fight earned Astrakhan Khanate. Because of gains of Ivan IV was able to control many Volga trade way and added to his title the title "king of Astrakhan.
Zaharbavshy Kazan and Astrakhan Khanate, Ivan IV began his war against the Crimean Khanate. It was fought for four years, but success is not desired brought. Crimean khan was a serious enemy, behind him stood a powerful Turkish sultan, to which shook Europe. Realizing the hopelessness Crimean war, John IV has directed its expansion westward.
Just then an opportunity to establish trade relations with Western Europe. In August 1553 on the White Sea coast, northern suburb of Muscovy landed Englishmen. They were members of the expedition traveler Hugh Uyilloubi who tried find "northern way" to India.
Age of opening XV - the first half of XVI century. when H. Columbus discovered America and Vasco Da Gama - a new route to India, significantly enriched Spain and Portugal. But other countries zazdryachy profits discoverers, they sought other ways to India. Popularity came the idea of "northern way" - around the Nordic Peninsula. May 11, 1553 this path in search of India and China went English squadron of three ships, led by Hugh Uyilloubi.
During the expedition two ships were lost, and one - last - was made to storm the shores previously unknown to the English "barbarian kingdoms" - Muscovy.
When Ivan IV reported on the arrival of strangers, he immediately realized that for his country discovered an opportunity to maintain links with Western Europe via the White Sea. King gave the English merchants the right to duty free trafficking in its territory.
But this way to maintain ties with Western Europe, John IV was not enough. long and severe winters hampered development of maritime trade through the White Sea, which was covered with ice.
Territorial encroachment Muscovy spread the rich Baltic lands that were in the power Livonian Order. The purpose of the Livonian War 1558-1583 and he was fighting John IV for the annexation of the Baltic States and access to the Baltic Sea. Moscow's Aggression alarmed Europe. In defense of Livonia were Lithuania, Poland, Sweden and Denmark. Prolonged 25-year war ended for the Moscow State checkmate.
Another object expansion was Siberia. In 1582 began the conquest of the Siberian Khanate. Interested in submitting to these lands merchants Stroganoff with permission of John IV hired detachment of the Volga Cossacks Ataman Yermak, who went to conquer Siberia. Actions Cossacks armed with firearms destruction reminded Spanish conquerors of Indians in the New World. The local population resisted invaders exterminated. All others were forced to be sworn in Moscow and the king levied tribute. For Cossacks conquered land had marched merchants artisans, peasants, fugitives, all kinds of adventurers. Behind this motley crowd moved the king's troops and officials who turned the earth in Siberia colonies in the Moscow State. Colonization of Siberia lasted over the century and ended in late XVII century.
The results of the expansionist foreign Moscow State policy in the XVI century. was a significant increase in its territory during due to land in the east, defeat in the struggle for access to the Baltic Sea exhaustion of the state in almost continuous warfare.
Documents. Facts. Comments
Description of Moscow's ambassador to the Holy Roman Empire Sigismund der Herbershteynom
Of government that he (the king of Moscow Vasily III) uses for his subjects, it easily surpasses all the monarchs world. He finished what his father started, namely: to replace all the princes Winners and their cities and strongholds. If he orders someone to come to his court or go to war, or send to the embassy, he had to do all this at their own expense. Exception is some boyar children who do not have large profit margins such persons, he maintains, by assigning fees, but different. Know that carries ambassadorial service or perform other important duties, provided, in accordance with gentility and work of each, or vicegerency, or village, or manor, but for each of these possessions they pay to the king certain tax.
Use its authority and respect for king clergy, as to lay their lives freely and rozporyadzhayuchys property. With the advisers whom he has no one can even dare to argue with the king. They openly declare that the will of the king - is God's will and that makes the king he makes the will of God.
Since the ruling Rurik all enjoyed only the title of grand dukes, or ascend, or Moscow and others. but John III, who called himself "the sovereign of All Russia." Vasily uses the royal title, he calls himself: "Basil the Great Tsar, by God Mercy king and prince of All Russia and the Grand Prince of Vladimir, Moscow, Novgorod, Pskov, Smolensk, Tver, Yuhorskyy, Perm, Bulgar, etc..
1.What was government tsar on his subjects?
2.What were terms of public service at the court of tsar?
1. Describe the consolidation of autocracy in Muscovy in the XVI century.
2.Describe the role of the boyars and nobles in Muscovy. What was due strengthening the nobility?
3. As consisted relationship between state and church in the Moscow state? Who are "Yosyflyany" and "nestyazhateli?
4. Fold plan to 'reform Ivan IV "and prepare a story behind it. Determine which reform led to the king.
5. What is oprichnina? What was its purpose and how it was done?
6. Compare circumstances of the accession of Western Siberia Moscow kingdom and conquest South America by Spanish conquistadors. What were the consequences of conquest Siberia for local people?
7. Fold table "Basic directions of foreign policy in Muscovy XVI century. and their implementation "according to the scheme:
Measures of of
1552 - Joining the Kazan Khanate.
1556 - Joining the Astrakhan Khanate.
1558-1583 biennium - Livonsk war.
1582 - Accession of Western Siberia.