§ 30. Revolutionary War Independence (1775-1783 gg.) Creating U.S.
1.What is the reason and drive to war and how they differ?
2.What forms of government existed then in Europe?
1. "Boston Tea Party." Occasion to war
Conflict between Britain and its North American colonies eventually led to confrontation and war.
Spring 1773 ports to American ships went East India Company tea. Meanwhile “Committees Communications`communication, which carried koordyeatsiyu anti-English statementsActually took power in the colonies, agents forced the East India Company to abandon the cargo. But Boston agents resolutely refused to execute the Committee. Then Boston Committee decided to prohibit discharge of tea, informing British government committees and other cities. Within 20 days the crowd at the port is not allowed unload ships. Finally, several men in Indian dress infiltrated ship and in front of the crowd threw crates of tea into the sea.
Fig. "Boston Tea Party"
In England "Boston Tea Party" was interpreted as a declaration of war. Parliament decided close the port to indemnify the East India Company and to transfer management colony of Massachusetts, Boston where the Chief of the British American troops in Gen. Heija. British troops to Boston. English occupation paralyzed the economic life of cities and colonies. But inhabitants of the colonies decided to go through. Legislative Assembly (convention) Massachusetts adopted a series of decisions: Heija dismissed and instead Governor, appointed by London, was established a provisional government, intended treasurer, who pay taxes. The meeting brought a decision to convene Continental Congress - gathering representatives of the colonies.
Began creation of armed groups (militia), held the first skirmishes with the British.
2. Declaration of Independence. The course of war
At the end of 1774 was assembled and continental Congress, which decided to boycott British goods.
Second Continental Congress (1775 ), in conditions of war, actually started taking over the functions of the central government, said state War and made the decision to organize a joint military colonies. At the head of the Army was George Washington (1732—1799).
Fig. George Washington
The figure in the history of
George Washington was a wealthy Virginia planters, who had previously has participated in hostilities against the Indians and French and earned Fame commander. In American eyes, he was the embodiment figure who can lead a hard and uncompromising struggle for the independence of the homeland. About testified that even his appearance: the face with sharp, bold features, powerful figure, self-confidence. A key role in the appointment Washington played for the post of chief and that he was a wealthy person, and most Americans felt that only wealthy people can be truly independent in its views and actions.
Congress invited all the colonies to form their own governments. The first did Virginia. In June 1776 it proclaimed the Declaration of Independence. Following Virginia declared independence and other colonies.
These events occurred against the backdrop of fighting that unfolded. British troops sought isolate the north from the southern colonies where the British kept a strong position. Washington Army in 1776-1777 biennium experienced significant difficulties with supply and suffered defeats. Under these conditions, most members of Congress hesitated to final break with England. Congress turned to George III of the petition reconciliation and end the war. Instead of answering the king sent to the colonies new troops.
This was the end Congress deal of misgiving. He chose the commission that produced the Declaration of Independence. Its authors were prominent American political figures Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826) and John Adams (1735—1826).
The figure in the history of
Thomas Jefferson came from a family of wealthy Virginia planter. He received a good education. He worked as a lawyer. Jefferson admired thy youth politics, philosophy, professed ideals of the Enlightenment. In 26 years of age he was elected to the Legislative Assembly of Virginia. Jefferson's political goal was to achieve independence English colonies in North America and creating their own state. The newly formed government should be formed based on the rule of the people and government natural equality of men. In 1775 Jefferson was elected deputy Continental Congress. In the Declaration of Independence, which by proxy Congress developed the 33-year old Jefferson (youngest members), he brought click on the abolition of slavery. However, this option while editing the document special commission deleted. Jefferson played a significant role in establishing U.S. state - held the positions of governor of Virginia, Secretary of State in the first government of George Washington, Vice President and President.
July 4 1776 Declaration of Independence of amended Commission was approved by Congress. The Declaration proclaimed the creation of new independent state - United States.
Fig. Signing of the Declaration of Independence U.S.
Meanwhile, fighting action unfolded not in favor of Americans. In August 1776 English captured New York, Philadelphia. Washington's army had neither guns nor enough guns and ammunition. Attempts to organize a regular army instead voluntarily exposed to the resistance of the population.
Under these conditions even enemies of England (Spain, France, the Netherlands) did not dare to open alliance with the U.S.. However, volunteers came to America, received money and weapons. Especially significant assistance provided France, where, as a representative North American colonies, was B. Franklin. In April 1777 one of the passionate supporters of the British colonial struggle 18 years Marquis Lafayette dressed at their own expense and frigate with friends America went to war for independence, defend the ideals of democracy. In America, Lafayette was one of the assistants to General Washington. In support Americans arrived, including the Pole Tadeusz Kosciuszko and the Prussian General William Shteyben.
Baron Wilhelm Shteybena considered one of the best assistants in Washington. He was able to badly dressed civilians create a true combat-ready troops.
The first significant American army won a victory in the battle near Saratoga (NY) autumn 1777 Then the new state admitted France, Spain, Holland. Russia has armed neutrality - resistance to the English, who U.S. hindered trade.
Having received assistance from allies, the American army came to attack and resolute in Yorktown main forces surrounded the British, who in 1781 capitulated.
Fig. Revolutionary War Of English colonies in America. Formation of the United States
3. Versailles Peace. Consequences of War
September 3 1783 between Britain and the U.S. signed a peace treaty in Versailles (France). England recognized the independence of the United States and gave them the territory of northern border of Massachusetts to the southern border of Georgia and to the west - to the Mississippi River.
In 1785 English King George III received the new ambassador of the United States John Adams. Speaking to the ambassador, George III said: "Sir, I was the last who consented to the separation of the colonies, now when it happened, I first look friendship of the United States as a sovereign state. " Thus began a new era in relations between the two countries.
After the war, young State finds itself in serious straits. Economy was undermined by prolonged war and loss of ties with former parent. There was not enough gold and silver. But enough has been depreciated paper money. Southern States suffered shortage of manpower. Increased cost of living. Almost no man who had to debt. Under such circumstances unfolded acute political struggle, exacerbated social problems.
Radically set of the population require further changes and sought property equality. People conservative views sought agreement with the former metropolis. In the Army, which for a long time have not received salaries riots occurred, mature conspiracy to establish a monarchy.
Began performances farmers and urban citizens. The biggest performance occurred in Massachusetts during leadership of the liberation war hero Daniel Sheikh (1786—1787).
U.S. Congress, not with real power, desperately looking out of the situation. It was confiscated land the English crown, the English landowners and their supporters, the army dissolved, the soldiers charged in the bill issued certificates to land.
Similar measures were temporary and could not bring our economy crisis. A young country needed strong central government, the only protected market.
4. Formation of government
Along with war for independence was the formation of state structures. Since 1776 till 1783 all states were formed governments and parliaments acted -Union Congress. The war has put the issue on the agenda the ratio of union power and government authorities of the states.
To somehow solve this issue, 1777 adopted the "Articles of Confederation (the first U.S. Constitution). According to them the Soviet Union Congress assigned the role arbitrator in disputes between states, and the army leadership was transferred outside policy. In states recognizing the right: tax collection, issuing their own money zatvedzhennya customs tariffs, making trade agreements. Each state sent a deputy to the Congress. Changes in the political structure of states were made only by their unanimous decision.
5. U.S. Constitution
"Articles of Confederation few people are comfortable with. Under such conditions, in May 1787 gathered in Philadelphia 55 delegates from all states (except Rhode Island) to develop a constitution young state. Delegates formed a constitutional congress, which is heated in discussions within four months of coordinated basic provisions of the constitution. Finally, September 17, 1787 the majority of the delegates adopted the compromise and Original signed the U.S. Constitution, and acting today.
According to the U.S. Constitution with fuzzy Confederation turned into a strong federal state. Its subjects - the states retained a significant portion of rights, but the main national functions have been transferred to the federal (central) government. Yes, the federal government to solve the issues of foreign policy, defense, finance, national legislation.
Constitution included the principle of separation of powers in the branches (legislative, executive, judicial) and system of checks and balances that prevented strengthened one branch by the other and attempts to establish an exclusive warned authorities.
Executive Power the country passed a U.S. president who was elected for four years, was head of state, government, and commander of the armed forces. He appointed Ministers, which approved the Congress (Parliament), but they were subject only the president, as well as ambassadors, members of the Supreme Court. In case of illness, death or inability of the president to govern the country was introduced post vice-president who once served the function of presiding over the Senate (upper House of Congress). Congress had a right to express no confidence in president (Impeachment).
Legislature belonged to Congress. He had the right to impose and collect taxes, regulate trade (foreign and interstate), coin money, enter duty, writing army and navy.
The Congress consisted of two chambers. Upper - the Senate - elected at meetings of local legislative meeting. Each state, regardless of size and population, sent two representatives. The Senate elected for six years with a mandatory replacement third of the members every two years. The Senate approved the appointment to the highest public office to solve foreign policy issues, if necessary acted as a judicial body of senior civil servants, even to the president. If civil servant admitted guilt, it waited for the court or dismissal.
Lower House - House of Representatives - elected for a term of two years the proportion of voters in the state. She discussed the bills and budget utverdzhuvala taxes, but their decisions had to coordinate with the Senate.
Voting was granted only to white men who have reached 21 years of age and had some property. So in the Constitution was established the existence of racial and property qualification.
Constitution and established a Supreme Court - the highest court, which was intended from 6 (later with 9) attorneys on his term.
For the time The U.S. Constitution was the most advanced and democratic. It sharply contrasted with the absolutist order of Europe. And although it is guaranteed property rights, there were no guarantees of democratic freedoms. This defect was eliminated in 1789 At the request of J. Madison states formed the first 10 amendments to the Constitution - Bill of Rights. They declared freedom assembly, speech, press, religion, personal immunity, jury, law every American to have weapons for self and others. Bill approved 1791
Later it was approved and state symbols. June 14, 1777 Congress approved national flag of the United States, 1782 - The emblem, and 1931 - Anthem.
Documents. Facts. Comments
1. Excerpts from the Declaration of Independence
When the events makes some people terminate his political relationship with other people and take along with the rest independent of the situation .. then due attention to the opinions of mankind requires its explain the reasons that encourage him to break.
We consider such obvious truths: all men are created equal and all are endowed with certain inalienable from the Creator rights, which include life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness. To ensure these rights governments installed in people with otherwise fair government by consent managed. And if this form of government becomes detrimental to their goals, the people has the right to change or cancel it and install a new government.
These colonies ... ... long and patiently withstood all sorts of trouble, and need only now makes them change their current form of government. History of the present King of Great Britain is full ceasing .. injustices which had the immediate purpose establish a tyranny in these states.
In the proof we present for impartial world court following facts:
He, of England, refused adopt laws and yaknaykorysnishi yaknaypotribnishi for the benefit of ...
He tried to harass colonization these states.
He ... sent here the crowd to his officials, that ruins people and suck out all the juice out of it.
He ... approved the following acts:
Termination of our trade with all parts world.
Tax us without our consent ...
He refused to manage us, deprived us your prayers and told us the war.
He robbed us of the sea, our spustoshuvav coasts, burnt our towns, and killed our citizens ...
Therefore, we, representatives of the United States America, meeting at the general congress, declare on behalf of Empowerment of the people of the colonies that these united colonies are, and by law must be free and independent states, they are exempt from any nationality British crown, and any political connection between them and The UK government does poryvayetsya ...
1.As in document onґruntovuyetsya right colonies for independence?
2.What Did authors note the declaration when writing: "All men are created equal"?
3.What ideals Enlightenment reflected in the document?
4.What is common to the Declaration?
1.What was pretext for the War of Independence?
2.What decisions was adopted first and second Continental Congress?
3.As unfolded fighting from 1776 till 1783?
4.Name reasons for the victory in the war for U.S. independence.
5.Why France, Spain, Russia helped the United States in the war for independence?
6.Expand Main provisions of the Declaration of Independence.
7.Name terms of the Versailles peace between the U.S. and Britain.
8.What were economic, political and social consequences of the War of Independence for the USA?
9.What were views on the future constitutional structure of the U.S.?
10.Describe basic provisions of the U.S. Constitution.
11.What caused adoption of the Bill of Rights?
12.How in the U.S. Constitution was enshrined principle of separation of powers into legislative, executive and judicial branches?
Note the dates:
1773 - "Boston Tea Party."
1775 - 1783 - The war for independence.
1776 - Adoption of the Declaration of Independence.
1787 - Adoption of the U.S. Constitution.
1791 - Entering the U.S. Constitution in 1910 amendments (Bill of Rights).