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§ 16. The main ideological directions of the XIX century (textbook)


Literature and the Arts FIRST HALF XIXArt.

§ 16.The main ideological trends XIX Art.

XIX Art. as you know was the time when there are new direction of public opinion. They reflectby that timeLook for ways to overcome problemsrelated to the estateventilation andindustrial society. Each had its ideological direction "founding fathers"which identified key its principles.

1. Conservatism

Main ideasconservatism itself in XVIII Art. enhliyets Edmund Burke (1729-1797). In determining its outlook was a respect for tradition. Align their actions withexisting tradition is a manifestation of the mind of man. Current в social lawsconsidered this is recognized theoretician of conservatism, it should providebalance and stability. Anyone who is interested in maintaining peace and order, should follow in order tothis equilibrium is not violated.Radical measures are harmful to Publicdevelopment primarily because it violates the trenchnovahu and can cause chaos. Burke agreed with thosethat reforms are needed, but believed that they should notaffect the traditional foundations of society.

Edmund Burke


The politician, who intends to makereform should not considercountry as a blank sheet of paper on which you can write whatever you feel like it.The need to improve the life of the country, according to Burke, should blend in with the statesmanattempt save the best that exists insociety. Treated with approval heto the reforms that are fired to prevent revolution or renewalare you traditional principles. Example of recent reforms, he believed "Glorious revolution" in 1688 p., which restored the monarchy in England.

Another European theorist of conservatism believesavoy Count Josefa de Mestre (1753-1821).Observation of the changes that took place during the French Revolution end XVIII Art., made the enemy of revolutionary changes insociety. Strongly criticized Mestre de France educators. He considered groundless assertion that the power hiscrazy people can create new social and political order. Graf followedview of the fact that state and law createdGod, and the person is unable to refine it. Thereupon he categoricallyrejected the possibility of introducing a constitutionalthis,because they embody "God's mind." De Mestre ubachav opportunityimprovement of society in strengthening the role of religion in it. He put forward the ideaEuropean monarchy to be headed by the Pope. NaturalHuman Rights, which declared French educators, de Mestre,is fiction. The slogans of freedom, equality and brotherhood he considered unfeasible,because people are by nature unequal and made slaves of God.


Josefa de Mestre

2. Liberalism

The opposite of conservatism were ideas of liberalism.In England they have been formulated JeremiahBentham (1748 - 1832). He viewed society as a bunch of people withtheir own interests. Prosperity of society, according to Bentham, perhapsonly ensure individual rights, inviolability of privateproperty. Actions that infringe on these rights should be considered crimes and prohibitlaws. Jeremy maintained freebusiness, believed that its developmenttion, there shall be noobstacles than those that limit the possible harm to others.

Jeremy Bentham


Categorically rejecting the possibilitysocial progress through revolution,Jeremy tie it to reform. Unlike from conservatives, heubachav in that time the political system EnglandMany remnants of ancient traditions that did not meet the needs ofBam and timeneeded a way to eliminate the implementation of relevant reforms.

In France, the ideals of liberalism espoused Benzhamen-Henry Constant (1767-1830). Indeed he believed that a free society, inwhich recognizes the priority rights of the individual. The interests of the government and the masses, shall be secondary to human rights. Constant defended freebusiness and insisted that the state should not have his opportunitieslimit.

Benzhamen-Henri Constant


Political ideal was a thinkerconstitutional Monarevhiya. Constant criticrepublican ideals, because in his view, they do not provide the necessaryindependence of the individual from the government. Only a constitutional monarchy canguarantee the rights of the middle class. Ways of restricting the power of it in its ubachavdistribution, as well as in public Dumnyi.

3. Nationalism

Many historians call XIX Art. era of nationalism. Nationalism was, according tosome scientists, one of nayvplyvovishyh andmost sustainable ideas of human history. Home Sewcreation of a Europeanviews of nationalism put French Revolution end XVIII Art., which proclaimed the union of free citizens of a nationAnd the source of state authority. With the Napoleonic wars were new ideasspread in Europe. Napoleon I, which modern historians have called"Nomadic trader nationalism,supported the national movements in Italy and Poland also caused by their actions explosion of patriotic feelings among Captivepeoples who had their own state.

Further development of ideas of nationalismwas associated with 0Shyalnyistyu German philosophers. As a result of the defeat of PrussiaRail against Napoleon (1806), philosopher Johann-GottliebFichte (1762-1814) called on Germans in his "Address to the Germantiatsiyi "to national revival, due to which they can achievecultural leadership in Europe.

Johann Gottlieb Fichte-


Theoreticalthe basis of nationalism found in the ideas of romanticism, which promoted a great artistic value of national languageand traditionalthis. German philosopher-romantic Johann Herder-Hotfrits (1744- 1803) much attention paid to those Slavicnations that were in while deprived of its ownstatehood. Thanks to the original traditions andculture, they maintained, Herder predicted that the future, theycreate their own national state. Separately, German philosopher definedUkrainian and argued that "Ukraine onceform new Hellas ". Georg-Friedrich-WilhelmHegel (1770-1831) rejectedcapture folk culture Palmmanufacturers, but supported the idea of anational states in Europe. He considered it not only the most optimal formassociation of citizens for the sake of realizing the ideals of freedom, security and happiness, but asexpression of divine ideas. National Power, According to Hegel, was the highest stage of social development.

Among historians remain dividedas to whom considertheorists of nationalism. Some scientists find origins of this current in the works of Jean-Jacques Rousseau and EdmundBurke, others believe the founder ofnationalist Friedrich List. MaybeThis difference of opinion stems from the fact matched nationalism у XIX Art. a universalphenomenon of history.

4.Socialist Theory

In the firsthalf XIX Art. development of socialist ideas was associated with the work of French thinkers.They inlost their in the first quarter XIX Art. use the term "socialism" and "communism." Socialist Theorybrings together the views of the Capelyteliv,who advocated the elimination of contemporary procedures and plottedDoe's new society in which there absoluteSocial equality of men and be withoutexploitation of workers. In questionwhich means create a new society, socialist;: divided into supporters of social reform and social,revolution.

One of the first French Socialistswas Claude-Henri Saint-Simon(Count de Ruvrua; 1760-1825). He criticized tohochassociety and not considered necessary to achieve changes informed the; workers and the poor. Saint-Simondeveloping plans to create! suchsociety in which there was no operation and six temties. New Society or, as called him a philosopher,industrytion system that would ensure prosperityall citizens through the development of science and technology. As the role of the state he ubachav only in that it forces people to work, thenit disappear. All work and livethe principle: "from each - for the ability, to each - in hisaffairs.

Claude-Henri Saint-Simon


Temporal powerin society, the fictional Saint-Simon, inblame was focused on the Board of Manufacturers, spiritual - in Academy Sciences. These organizations willmanage the development of peoplefoot facilities in accordance with those plans, whichand they consistsatisfies the. Realize theirplans ubachav thinker in the proceedings gradual reforms.

The development of socialist ideas in Britain was occupation Robert Owen (1771-1858). Most of the defects of contemporary societystva itexplained the existence of private property, calling for its elimination. New"System of truth, wealth and happiness," he attributed to the formationlarge family communities or communes where everything will be in common ownership.All members of communities produce, divided between them according to the naturalhuman needs. Clothes will be convenient, simple and equal for all. Fashion disappearbecause it is "only among stupidand weakest of mankind. "Commune gradually should cover the wholeground, causing it to become "an earthly paradise, which invariablydominate the peace and happiness. "

Robert Owen

5. The spread of socialist ideas у 50-60's pp.

Middle XIX Art. period was the further development of socialistsocialist theories. Then began the activities of CharlesMarx and Friedrich Engels, who advanced the theory of "class struggleproletariat.

Karl Marx (1818-1883) asked the question about "world - historical mission of the proletariat "as" the gravedigger of capitalism. "

Marx was one of the leaders of the Unioncommunists (1847 - 1852 pp.), International Society of workers (1 Internatsiohigh, 1864-1876 pp.), the author of these documentscon'organizations. Among his most famous works - "ManifestoCommunist Party "(written jointly with F. Engels) - a program of the UnionCommunists, which included analysis formed the middle XIXArt. society and the idea of the necessity of overthrowing the capitalistcal system and the conquest of political power by the proletariat in

 form"Dictatorship of the proletariat." In "Capital" Marx explainedmechanism of capitalist exploitation.

Karl Marx


Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels (1820-1895)constantly borolyXia against the "opportunism" embodied thoughttrade unionism in England, prudonizm in France and some other countries,lassalyanstvo in Germany Blanquism, anarchism.

Supporters of the trade-unionist ideology limited taskLabor Movement economic struggle for the establishment of favorable conditions,And especially for skilled workers. They denied the necessitypolitical struggle of workers against the then system, thoughtunnecessary to create a separate cause of proletarian party or deceive its roleto the parliamentary representation of Trade Unions (tredyunioniv).

French journalist, economist and sociologist Pierre-Joseph Proudhon (1809-1865) and itsadvocates criticized a large private property, but defended the flocks. Proudhonnegative attitude to the "class struggle, proletarianRevolution "and" dictatorship of the proletariat. "He believed that withthrough specially organized "People's Bank, whichprovide "Darova credit, workers can buy their own toolsproduction and become self-sufficient producers. This idea strengthened the theory of Proudhonestablishing the "exchange bank", with which a workers can provide marketing productshis "work.

Pierre-Joseph Proudhon


German economist and sociologist Ferdinand Lassalle (1825 - 1864)Marx called himself a fan, but actually propose interpretation of itsideas. Declared obtaining universal suffrage priorityworkers lassalyantsi zaperechuvalynecessity of revolution, intended to only fight for general electionright. Based on the idea of the "iron law of wages, Lassalleand his followers denounced strikes andworkers struggle for higher wages, negativewas overwhelminglyto trade unions.

Ferdinand Lassalle


One of the currents of anarchism - bakunizm - named for its namefounder and ideologist MichaelBakunin (1814-1876). The purpose of the workingTraffic Bakunin ubachav not in the conquest of political power, and destruction ofany state. He was against doctrineKarl Marx's "class struggle" and "dictatorshipproletariat, put forward the idealeveling classes. Like Proudhon, Bakunin argued that workers do notworks to the national liberation movement inhnichenyhpeoples, he had bad feelings about the idea of political organizationsworkers? advocated by Marx. Bakuninists were natural supportersrebellion, they said that the people - p "Powderbarrel, which needed only a spark. Bakunin's ideas seem fighting and appealing for the oppressed people. InRussia's largestment the influence of Bakunin were populists.

Mikhail Bakunin


Louis-Auguste Blanc (1805-1881) - French communist-utopian. SuccessSBmo revolution combined with thewell prepared a secret conspiracyorganizationstion of revolutionaries, which,his view, the decisive moment of supportRodney mass.

Blanquists believed that even without preconditions Revolution narrow groupconspirators could carry out victorious uprising.

Louis-Auguste Form

6. Activities of the International Society ofty of workers

The meeting, which launched the existence of the International Societyworkers (PRI), held September 28, 1864 in London, St. Martins, Holly -One of the largest facilities for public meetings. It was attendedBritish and Irish workers, the delegation of the workers of France,laborers, immigrants from Germany, Italy, Polish revolutionaries - about 2thousand.

Meeting only announced the establishment of an international organizationworkers without defining its nature and principles of activity.

These questions and liked Karl Marx, who lived at the timein London.

He developed the basic softwaredocuments - the "founding manifesto of the International Society of Workers'and "Provisional Statute of the International Society of workers."


Announcing the creation of the First International


The main objective inputs ubachav Marx is to replace the socialistnapivsotsialistychni sects and only organization of workers that willcenter relations and cooperation between workers' associations that exist in differentcountries and set themselves the same goal - namely, protection, development and fullemancipation of the working class. "

In the early years of the 1 st International, as it werecalled, combined the various workers' organizations often kept its original name and becameactually, its links on the ground. If the country has several of these sectionsthey are united in national federations.

The highest 1 st Internationalwas Congress, which annually gathered representatives of national federations and sections. He chose the General Council thatwas in London and International, led in time between congresses.

Membership ticket MTR F. Engels


As the Unioncommunists, the activities of the 1 st International buduvave on the principle of democratic centralism. Democracydemonstrationlyavsya in the election of the General Council and its accountability toCongressmancatfish, and centralism - subordinateorganizations lower higher minority - the majority, that is, in strictParty discipline.

Nitty-gritty of the general council soon focuseda permanent body - the Standing Committee, which included the chairman and secretaryGeneral Council and Secretary-correspondents who were involved in connection withindividual countries (including Karl Marx as the corresponding secretary forGermany).

Already in autumn 1866 consisted of hundreds of thousands of Internationalmembers. According to the Paris police in the early 70's pp. XIX Art. in France they wereabout 434 thousand in England - 80 thousand, Germany - 150 thousand, s Austria-Hungary ~ 100 thousand, Switzerland - 45 thousand inSpain - about 3 thousand

Basel Members of Congress and the Third International 1869


Based on its supportersMarx and Engels fought hard against prudonistiv, and other Bakuninists"Opportunistic" elements, actively promoted his theory. 1 stInternational supported the Paris Commune of 1871 p., PRI members were actively involved in its activities.

У 1872 р Hague Congress 1 st International approved convert inputs to the governing bodies of the United States. Early70 pp. XIX Art. Activity 1International in Europe ended, he was formally dissolved1876

Value 1 of the Second Internationalwas the fact that due its activitiesin the labor movement won a high position Marxism.

Documents. Facts. Comments

Opinionstheorists of liberalism

І. Jeremy:"The clash between equality and security uncertainty impossible: equalityhave to give ... Installation Equality is a ghost: it is possible to decrease onlyinequality,

B. Constant: "Freedom is my understandingpersonality as a victory over the power that wants to operate through violence andover the masses, which express on behalf of most claims for submissionMinority ... All that in an industry that provides opportunities for developmentIndustry opponent belongs to the individual and the law shall notsubordination of its public authorities ",


1.    What were the ideological foundationsLiberalism?

2.    Tell usformation to above expressions.

Questions and Tasks

1.         Describe  conservatism and liberalism. Define commonand different in these two ideological and directions.

2.             What featuresemergence and development of ideas of nationalism?

3.             What was characteristic forsocialist ideology?

4.             How hassocialist ideas in the 50's and 60's pp. ?

5.             Describeof the International Society workers.