§ 17.Engineering, science, philosophy, literature Art and the first half XIX Art.
1.Technological achievements and their application value
The transition from manufactury tofactory production and invention at the end XVIII Art. steam engine allowed the development of technicalprogress in the industry. Contents of a new stage of technological progress thatturned в first half XIX century, lies in creating a lot by lot. Therefore in the industryone of the main sustainable engineering.
To prepare the machines neededmany metals, including steel industry began to improve. EnglishEngineer Henry Byessemer invented for the production of pig iron, iron and steelrotating furnace - converter, a French engineer Pierre Martin - furnacesteel quality. In engineering plants used50-ton steam hammer, which rozplyuschuvalylumps of metal. As an independent industry emerged chemicals. Significantachievement was textiles. With mechanized causingdrawing on fabric instead of fifty workers this work done two.An example of technological progress in the first half XIX Art. was the change in publishing. At the beginning of the century forPrinting used a hand saw. Later he was replaced by mechanical,which is also constantly improved. In 1816, in London, printed 1100copies of the Times "per hour, and in 1850 - already 10 thousand
Significant changes have occurred in the massTransport and Communications. The primary means of transportation on land have becomeRailway. On sea routes sailinggradually vytisnyalysya steamerwe. In1807 was testing the first steamboat Robert Fulton. Onbeginning of the century in America and England were the first cars with a steam engine.Speed of movement in 'England limited 4 km / hr.
Steam machines have found application in agriculture. In the 40's pp. in England, the first steam thresher, and over time and steam plows. Hence theywere distributed 'In other countries.
Improved communications. Very fastspread invented in 1844 by Americaninventor Samuel Morse telegraph apparatus.
Needdevelopment of world trade led to the construction of canals. The largest of themSueidkyy a channel, whose construction began in 1859 a French engineerFerdinand Lesseps. In 10 years it was completed. Evidence of success of newtechnique was the construction of railway tunnels. In 1843 construction was completed a tunnel under the Thames.Imnalyuvalysya construction of bridges. In1818-1826 he was an engineer in England Telfordbuilt the first railroad bridge mounted. Johan Reblinh built in the U.S. five well-known chainbridgestiv. The most famous among them -Brooklyn Bridge in New - York, width medium run which is 486 m.
Thus, the firsthalf XIX Art. was the period of rapid deployment of technical progress, which essentiallymedium changedanother person's life.
2. The development of science
First half XIX Art. was the period of rapid development Natural and Mathematical Sciences. Linked with this wasnew needs of society. Deploymenttechnical progress required understandinglaws of mechanics, properties of materials used in manufacturing,find a means of calculating the speeddicepressure and more. These and many other problems have been solved scientists from different countries.
Many did for French scientist of chemistry Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier where. He studiedjurisprudence and science. Through his work became an independent chemistryresearch direction. On behalf of the Paris Academy of Sciences, Lavoisier took part indevelopment of purely technical issues, including aeronautics, publichygiene. With the invention of the best way to light city streets scientistreceived Gold Medal of the Academy. Was impressiveLavoisier contribute to the growth production and quality in the dustFrance. His big profits, he spent part of scientific discoverylaboratories and research. During the Revolution in France advocateda constitutional monarchy. In 1794, with the revolutionary tribunal verdictLavoisier was executed.
Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier where.
Contemporary France has given the world morea gifted chemist. Claude-LouisBertola found that the characteristics of chemical reactions depend on the mass and propertiessubstances that interact, and the reaction conditions. Labor Bertola foundapplication in industrial production. Thus, for the manufacture of explosivessubstances, matches still open it using so-called bertoletovu salt.He developed a way to whitewash canvas chlorine, the advantage of light industry.
With the nameCzech naturalist Gregor Mendel (1822-1884)link of the science of heredity.Mendel brought laws hereditary transmissionsigns and this began the development of genetics that studies heredity and variationorganisms. Ideas MendeFor use inselection of plants, animals and microorganisms.
In the secondhalf XIX Art. Natural advanced Sciruski development of microbiology, immunology,embryology, bacteriology. Leading representativesthese research areas were: Robert Koch in Germany, in Russia, Ilya Mechnikov, LouisPasteur in France.
A peculiar result ofNaturalists from different countries and reward for hard work was the discoveryin the second half XIX Art. Dmitri Mendeleev (1834-1907)one of the fundamental laws of nature, which was named the periodicMendeleyev's law.
Dmitry Mendeleyev and the periodic table a draft
Outstandingcenters of research in natural sciences XIX Art.are Universities of Berlin, Vienna, Paris and St. Petersburg.Founders of new scientific directions were associates and sympathizers. Theyformed schools, which belonged to the many talented scientists.
3. The main trends in philosophy
The brightest main trends of philosophy of the end XVIII - First half XIX Art. come true works of German scientists - ImmanuelKant (1724-1804), H.-V.-F. Hegel(1770- 1831) і L. Feuerbach (1804-1872). Kant and Hegel Labor lifted philosophical view on the then new step, the preconditions forfurther development of teaching about the structure of the universe, causes movement and decay of livingnature, methods and knowledge of the task, purpose and limits of human activity.
Kant H.-V.-F. Hegel Л. Feuerbach
Pioneer of German classical philosophy was Kant, his views were formed before the FrenchRevolution 1789 and absorbed allcontradictions of the era. Kant tried to primadig irreconcilable,combine in one system dissimilar philosophical directions. To the materialistteaching which does not recognize the spiritual authority, ox added claimnepiznavannist world that exists only in human consciousness. His greatest"... Impressed by two things: the starry sky above us and the moral law withinus. So, in the writings of Kant combined two areas of philosophy - materialism and idealism. He underwent criticismas one or the other, but his successors largelycontinued development of its doctrine.
Idealism Kant reached the conclusionin the philosophy of Hegel Hegel hailed the revolution inFrance, was a supporter of the republic. Ideal for him was the ancientdemocracy. He rejected the feudal-absolutist order in Germany. Bybasis of all phenomena of nature and society Hegel accepted principle, which hedefined as "the world's mind, spirit world,"Absolute idea". I looked for connections between logic and history, adoredstate. Concluded about the dangers of revolutionary upheavals in Germanyand the need to support the constitutional monarchy as the best form of staterule.
Under the influence of Hegel's views were formed Ludwig Feuerbach. Learning fromTheological Faculty University Heidelberg,He moved to Berlin to listen to lectures Hegel. Soon he had himself taught a course'Hegelian philosophy. OneChe, rejecting his idealismTeacher Feuerbach strongly rewent toposition of militant atheism. Anonymously published work, primaviolations against belief in the immortality of the soul but was identified and expelled from universityversity.After marriage for 25 years lived in the village, died in poverty.
In the history of philosophy of Feuerbach workreceived mixed assessment. The wicked saw its merits in the revival and deepeningmaterialism, atheism justification. Other treated to views of Feuerbachfavor of a kind of faith, some sort of satanism. Reasons given for this contemplation and not inconsistent it only works but works: Feuerbach welcomedRevolution 1848 - 1849 PP- InEurope, 1870, he joined the Social-Democratiction of the party, but never led an active politicalactivity.
4.Guidelines for Development of Literature
У XVIII art.development of literature is done under direct the influence of educators. It was a time of economic maturation in Europe,political and spiritual conditions for significant changes in social and politicallife. Their approach subtly felt masters of artistic expression. Analyzingheartfelt understanding age, throughoutthrough artistic means and images transmitted its nature and place inHistory.
Thoughtfully created great poetryrepresentatives of the German people age enlightenment Johan-Vrlfhanh von Goethe (1749-1832) and Frschrih von Schiller (1759-1805).Both overhangburn as humanists, fighters for freedom and progress people, thoughunderstand its purpose abstract.
Monument to J. Goethe and Schiller in Weimar (Germany)
Poet and thinkerGoethe as a young man he participated in literary moving storm and onslaught. Central to hisparticipants were free education of the individual and national prosperityculture not a permanent political dissent.Goethe studied the history of culture, science, ledresearch. Man perceived holistically, and only in the context of the era, andsocial phenomenon linked to the spiritual state of man. He deniedrevolutionary inviolence. The meaning of life Goethesaw in the freedom of individuals. The international recognition of the writeroffered a novel in letters "Sorrows of the Young Werther." Philosophical IdeasGoethe outlined in the tragedy "Faust". In the mouth of the main character attachedprophetic words: "Only a life worthy of liberty, who fights every day forthem.
Schiller, like Goethe, fervently believed in the irreversibility of progress and unlimitedhuman possibility in her mind, spiritual and physical strength. The first works of Schillerdemonstrated by the formation of republican views. Convent even deignhim the honorary title of citizen of France. Further developmentevents led to the poet's belief that freedom can only be achieved through aestheticeducation. Schiller left a rich legacy as a poet, playwright, historian. Puttingin the center of the action man, he considered the main causes vicissitudes of conflict of interests in certainpersonalities. Works withsvyachuvavjuncture in the history of European countries. These include historical dramas and tragedies, includingtrilogy "VallenStein,"Mary Stuart", "virgin Orl
Goethe and Schiller made a significantcontribution to the growth of German consciousness and overcomingdisintegration of Germany. They provided world-class German authorityliterature and identified directions for its further development.
The quest for new, unusualgenerated a new literary method - romanticism. The main artistic genreswork became lyrics, lyric drama and lyrical epic poem. Their words and actionsheroes authors disclose their own world view, attitude towards othersIndeed, were seeking a better system society.The lush, colorful language, expressive characters, Dramamatyzm plotcolorful epithets, metaphors, comparing the works of writers and distinguishRomantic poet among other works. Some are friendly depictedMiddle and objectionschuvaly need for revolutionaryshocks, other awakened nonconformistspirit of freedom and chanted charms. But representativesKiv both directionsoften united opposition to revolutionary methods of struggle, frustrationbloody consequences of revolutionary intervention in historical context.
Featuresconservative romanticism traced in the works English writer Walter Scott (1771-1832). Hezasudzhuvav revolution idealizedmonarchy. Mr. Scott entered the world literature as the founder of the genre of social and historical novels ("Puritans," "Ivanhoe""KventinDorvard et al.). Representatives revolutionary romanticism were: J. BayroniP.-B. Shelley inEngland. Victor Hugo and George Sand in France, A.Midkevych and Yu in Slovak Poland. In Americancontinent genre of epic poem developed the Romantic poet,scientist, linguist and translator Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, author of famous songsHayyavatu. "In Russia, the novel featurestyzmuwere inherent creativity Decembrist poets, Pushkin, M. LermontovV. Zhukovsky.
One of the most consistent proponentsromantic worldsense, an outstandingEnglish poet George Gordon Byron (1788-1824). Aristocrat oforigin, Byron read a lot, wrote poetry. Overcoming self-distrustthrough the natural classes helped him limp shooting, swimming, horseride. In his writings he zasu-see beyond the narrow aristocratic Lapta. In 1816Byron was settled in Switzerland. Work with a poet-exile became the basislyric drama "Manfred." As Faust - Goethe's literary hero,Manfred disappointed in their quest. Did he suffered remorse and loneliness,but lay before the reader a man of strength and neshytnoyu. In Italy, the poet wrotenovel in verse "Don Giovanni, which remained unfinished. In this workByron there has been a shift from romanticism to another creative method - realism.
Poet personally supported the fightagainst the people of Greece thatretskoho oppression. In Greece wereaddressed the last words of Byron: "I gave her time, money, health -now prefer life. What could I do it? ". Buried in the heart of a poetGreece, and the body with military honors brought to England.
У XIX Art. in world literature has spread a new creative method - the realism.Achieving natural sciences, social unrest if called upon writersand poets to study the deep impulses of the human soul, critical knowledgepast and present and its true image. Vivid representatives of a new direction inWestern European Literature became a German poet and journalist Heinrich Heine (Heine; 1797- 1856), writer A. deBalzac and Stendhal F. (France), C. Dickens and V.-M. Thackeray (England).
Realism in Russian literature became dominant literary movement ofsecond quarter XIX Art. FounderRussian REAin reaching - Alexander Pushkin (1799- 1837). Poetry and poems of prominent poet permeated with love for his homeland andpeople, they magnify the good and condemn injustice. Historical scenesused in the drama of Pushkin's "ForriceGodunov and the novel "Captain daughter.
Through poetic, deeply expressive depiction of Russianreally unique influence on developmentRussian culture was able keep, despite the short life, Mikhail Lermontov (1814-1841). Works"Inspector", "Dead Souls" Nikolai Gogol (1809 - 1852) initiated a critical naturerealism
5.Painting in human life and society
Public consciousness and state of mind of the artistfound a kind of embodiment in works of fine art. One of his species are painting - art display on the canvas, wood, paper, wallexternal and internal world of human nature, real or imaginary images andevents. Artists XIX Art. belonged to different trends, but they left behind immortalcreations that convey the relationship of man and society unique natural beauty, household and historicalscenes, portraits contemporaries, mythological motifs and more.
A phenomenon in world cultureFrench was art,fame is formed by E. Delacroix, A. House 'is G. Courbet, J.-F. Mi,Artists "Barbizon school".
A worthy representative and leaderRomanticism in art school was a French painter and graphic artist Eug (1798-1863). Heconcerned by the tragic events in Europe at that time, they responded to theirblades. His art contrary to the canons of formal academic painting.Delacroix created a picture full of emotions, exciting stories. Hisartistic means - spirituality and expressive images, dynamic composition,saturated color, expressiveness - made an impact on future generationsartists. Some paintings by Delacroix devoted Displaying events Frenchrevolution. His battle scenes also convey certain sections of national history.Some ideas for his art Delacroix found in the works of Shakespeare, Goethe,BaiRon, Scott. The most famous canvases by Delacroix- "Dante and Virgil" Libertyon the barricades "(" Liberty leading the people ")," The Battle of Poitiers.Talent was this artist diverse.He created a psychological portrait, original landscapes, still lifes, painted palaces, galleries and churches. Artworkschist artist belongs to the top of the worldArts XIX Art.
"Liberty leading the people" E. Delacroix
Many artists used theirtalent for making paintings by subjects andimages of mythology, ancient history and religion. Academicism contributedsystematic art education, Oderreluctance of professional knowledge in the pictureand composition. Representatives of this school followed the canons of ancient art.
Unlike the officially recognizedartists, some liveFrance urged pystsivwithdraw from the Workshop and closer to nature, which only has an incomparablerichness of light and color. These artists have moved from Paris to the village of Barbizon,located in the forest. They felt fine nature and skillfully portray itreal images. Works barbizontsiv underlined designed and perfect, they lacksocial engagement. So in the 30's and 60's pp. XIX Art. there"Barbizon School" Frenchpainter, landscaper, who were T. Russo, Dyupre J., D. de laPena and other famous artists. Some of their works are kept in museums in Moscow andSt. Petersburg.
Capture nature of their countryexpressed by the German painter K.-D. Friedrich and G. Thomas. The peculiarity of theirpaintings was merging the spiritual world of man with nature. Sometimes they are bringingsorrow, but in each work is felt by the soul wealth. Carefullymatched paint pictures provided festive celebration.
Recognition of landscape painters have wonBritish artists John Constable and Joseph Turner. Constable was able to seeunique natural beauty and transfer it totheir canvases with all the wealth shades. He could do the painting fordifferent weather conditions, while always retaining spirituality,harmony and majesty of nature. Turner, in addition to landscapes, architectural and wrotesea views, interlacing religious and mythological motifs.
George Dawelast ten years of his life worked in St. Petersburg. Written over 300 portraits of participants WWII1812 p., including generals Kutuzov and M. M. Barclayde Tolly. Dow masterful portraitsheroes celebrated precision characteristicssolemnity, fanned romanticism fame and exploits.
In Russiagrew up a whole galaxy of talented artists. The features Classicism and Romanticism K. Bryullova distinguished work. In the picture"The Last Days of Pompeii" depicts grand tragic scenepast. Kindly gave the artist the ancient city of death, courage andsamozrechenist rights in a moment of mortal danger. Another Russian artistIvanov turned to biblical themes. His famous painting "appearing Christ people, "embodies and doom, andexpectations, and spiritual awakening, andboundless faith in the triumph of good people and fairProtocol to. In painting realistic direction and O. Venetsianova Fedotov P-dominated social motives andabuse, domestic scenes that accuratelyplayed the Russian reality.
Kind of creativity andcommunication between people is thshrillyart that reflects reality in art sound images. In XIX Art. in many European countries have harm national music - Norway (E. Grieg)Polish (F. Sholen), Czech (B. Smetana, A.Dvorak), Hungarian (F. Liszt) Finnish(J. Sibelius). One of the greatest centers of world musical culture was the Vienna court opera. Austriainteraction riding with famous XVIII Art. opera performances. If at first dominated Italian opera, in XIX Art. on stages in Austria treated pieces of Austrian, Italian, German,Frenchkyh composers. In Vienna Operaperformed works by Moetsarta,Beethoven, Vatera, Verdi, Strauss and Tchaikovsky.
Germancomposer Ludwig van Beethoven (1770-1827): childhood perfectly played on many instruments.Marked love of freedom and militantdemocracy. In 22 years of AIDS: forever moved from Bonn to Vienna, he studiedin recognized. composers Mozart and Haydn.Smash virtuosopianist, composer and later. His works were invaluable contribution to world music. Theycaused recovery of all music genresart, expanded its content andcreative boundaries. Beethoven marked by extraordinary capacity for work The great composer included the capability,perfect knowledge of music, citizenshipcourageous and selfless rights. After1927 Beethoven's life progressed deafness, but it could not stop the creativity henialfoot composer. In the prime of wind: wrotegreat sonata - MisyachWell,"Kreutzer", "heroic", and in mature years - the famous Ninth Symphony.
Italianviolinist and compositionaltorus Niccolo Paganini (1782-1840) was one of the founders of the music Romanticism. He gave many concerts in many Europeancountries. His phenomenal talent has caused violent capture the audience. Paganini writJAR 200 pieces for guitar and a number of Concerto for Violin and Orchestra and solo. Giuseppe Verdi (1813-1901)- Famous Italian composer. Fluor already has discovered his talent в age seven. Verdi Operagained recognition in the middle XIX Art. Romantic tendencies early operas gave brightimages of ordinary people, a drama which is linked with political shocks. Opera "Il Trovatore"La Traviata, Aida came to the world Operaart. However, Verdi's famous in the history of musical culture and a reformer.It strongly changed the structure and nature of Italian opera, filled itunique vocal, dramatic, mechanicallodiynistyu.Efforts of Verdi and Rossini, Wagner, Gounod, Bizet and others in Europe have evolveddifferent genres of opera.
Works of French composer and conductor Hector - Louis Berlioz (1803-1869)belong to the romanticism of flow. In the spirit of his work similar to the works of Victor Hugo inliterature and
Elements of Slavic Musicnations, including Ukrainian,Polish art has absorbed the wonderful componentszytora and pianist Frederic Chopin (1810-1849). He wascreator of new styles and genres of piano music, has written dozens of works that were themselves in the global eramusic.
The towering master implementationRussian music poetry was Mikhail Glinka (1804-1857). Stillperformed his brilliant romances, heroic opera "IvanSusanin "(" Life for the Tsar "), the opera" Ruslan and Lyudmilasongs that are constantly in the repertoire of Ukrainian artists and performersgroups.
Questions and Tasks
1 Describe the technical achievements of firsthalf XIX cm. and their meaning.
2. What scientific discovery was made in the first half XIX cm.?
3 As found in the development of philosophyHistorical Display realities of the contemporary era?
4. Whatrole played by literature, art, music in the development of society andformation of human Personallytoast?
5. Whathumanistic, universal values have left us in inherited culture figures of the first half XIX cm. ?