§ 23. U.S.1877-1914 pp.
1. Achieving world championship. Antitrust legislationsary
End XIX - Early XX Art. U.S. economy experienced rapid growth. Thanks to the constant influxrapidly increasing immigrant population. For PEphase of from 1871 till 1913 it grew from 39.8 millionto 96.5 million persons; 55% growth were immigrants.
Early XX Art. USA came out on top in the world Volume of industrial production, technicalequipment and productivityity work. The total value of industrialU.S. production exceeded twice the cost of German and almost 2.5 times -English.
The leading role in Americanindustry played well equippedlarge enterprises. Constituting 2.2% of the totaltion ofenterprises, they produce half of industrial output. Large companiesoften cooperating in trusts, which monopolized the production of basicgoods. Early XX Art. used the most influence Rockefeller oil trust (producing 90%oil) and Morgan Steel Trust (vyplavlyav 66% steel). In 1900in the country, there were 440 industrial and transport trusts.
A significant development came in the U.S.fight against the trusts, cartels, which limited competition and businesstraders, consumers imposing excessive monopoly prices. In 1890U.S. Congress passed the antitrust law, which was recommendedSenator Sherman. Any person or organization if they cause damage to property of anotherperson or organization, by law, subject to prosecution in court orfine. Sherman Act prohibited the restriction of production and trade, but notimpede the strengthening of trusts.
Along with the trusts there was a significantnumber of small and medium enterprises. Freecompetition between them determined the dynamic American economy.
In American agriculture dominated familyfarm. His technical equipment to exceed the level of European countries. Byproduction of major agricultural products - grains, meat,Cotton - the U.S. took the first places in the world and became the main supplieragricultural products to Europe.
"The Senate monopoleій, оbraneиand monopoleіStam і serveть monopoleіpits " (Cartoon 1889.USA)
2. Social movement in U.S.
В last quarter XIX Art. U.S. finally established a presidential republic type andtwo-party system. Supporters of U.S. politicians constitute the core of the NorthRepublican Party and the South - Democratic. Prior XX Art. difference between Republican and Democraticparties virtually disappeared, both defended their desks, who was the public andU.S. polity.
Caricature oftwo-party system the U.S. (the elephant - the symbol of the Republican Party, a donkey - a symbolDemocratic Party)
In the late nineteenth century. arose among American farmersmass movement directed against the rail, industrial and commercialmonopolies. They demanded the nationalization of railways, telegraph and telephone, confiscationsurplus land, increasing taxes on the rich.
Early XX Art. democratic journalists and writers in their publications exposednumerous cases of bribery of government officials, financial fraud, exploitation of laborwomen and children.
Been active anti-imperialist league that consisted of nearly one million members. It vlashtovuvala crowded rallies protest against the expansionist imperial policy.
FightingRacism Founded in 1909 led the National Association for the Promotion progress of colored people. "its activists were in the press, courts, defending the rights of non-white population.
Had a significant impact on the progressive movementreform that interconnectionnuvav intelligentsiaservants, small businessmen, traders and workers.
Progressive democratization demandedelectoral system, reducing taxes, setting government control over trusts.Some demanded the progressive implementation of the U.S. Social Security systemsuch as the European and the adoption of the 8-hour day.
Outstanding leaders had progressive governor of WisconsinRobert Lafollet, which was later elected senator. In his state he hadDemocratic tax reform, took control of public transport andrailways.
3. "Fair exchange" Theodore Roosevelt
Supporterprogressive declared himself president Theodore Roosevelt (1858-1919). Dostupyvshys to power in 1901 p., He spent number of reforms thatinitiated reform efforts ("progressive era").
The basic idea was to Franklin D. Rooseveltthat the state, contrary to the doctrine of liberalism, should regulate the developmenteconomic and labor relations, namely: to take control restrict the activities of trusts and its negative implications- Resident eliminationcompetitors, to establish a monopoly market and so on. He considered it necessary to regulaterelations labor and capital to address the risk of socialrevolutions.
The message Congress 1902 p. T. Roosevelt declaredgovernment's willingness to be an arbiter between the workers and entrepreneurs, to conduct"Fair rate" in the working area.
First, progressivebyFranklin D. Roosevelt was the way judicial process1901 against the railroad company, which controlled the blink, it was accusedin monopoly, which prevented free trade. The court found the company of winene and decided to split it into two parts.
This was followed by another 25 courtpropositions con proceedings against monopoLeah, who brought the Franklin D. Roosevelt glory "underwhelming trusts and even"Revolutionary".
Continuing the policy of expanding state intervention ineconomy, Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1906 to pass through Congress a law that allowedGovernment control over railroad rates. Simultaneously adopted two popularlaws on state control over the manufacture of medicines, foodstuffs, ofcontrol over working conditions.
According tocarry out its promises "fair rate" of workers, the government has repeatedly intervened in a strike in favor ofstrikers.
Another focus of the Government of T.Roosevelt, who brought him fame was the protection of nature. At that time SSCHAbegan to realize that great natural treasures of America are not inexhaustible and thatpredatory deforestation, soil pollution of rivers and waste industrythreaten human major disaster. Since the initiative was taken by T. Rooseveltlaw that increased the size of the land fund was protected, almostfive times. Colorful, rich in rare plants and animals, areas declaredState Reserve. Special government commission had to monitor the purityrivers, land reclamation seeing you, take care of planting new forests.
In the elections1908 U.S. President was elected candidate of the Republican William Taft. Hecontinued reforms, aimedmalized to the extension of statecontrol of monopolies.
T. Roosevelt sends its successor policies W. Taft
The government organized Taft45 lawsuits against the trusts, in including againstRockefeller oil company and the steel trust Morgan. they recognizedguilty of violating the rules of free trade.
Keeping sacrosanct principleprivate initiative, the government Taft expanded state control over the prices of railways,which were privately owned.
4."New Democracy" B. Wilson
In the elections of 1912 through split former supporters of Republican Party candidate won the DemocratsWoodrow Wilson, who hallsshavsya power toIn 1920 he spent number of laws liberal character ("a newdemocracy "). It has been found high progressive tax on incomemodified procedure for the election to the Senate. Earlier, senators were appointedcollection of state legislatures, they are now elected by popular vote.
An important internal political event Mr. Wilson toTax World War was the actual implementation of statenational banking system. Respectively the law on the Fed, adopted in 1913 p., along with private banks were created and back-up, controlled by the government.they passed the main bank functions в includingissue of paper money. In 1914, they adopted the law on arraignmentindividuals and business owners who used unfair methods of competition.
5.Financial situation of the population. Activities of trade unions
In the competitive enterprisesought to use various opportunities increase production. Except introduction of new techniques and technologies widelyused proven method of reducing the workforce. Diaphoreticsystem brought the best returns, but relentlessly picked human health andand often life. Thus, in 1914 happened in the U.S. two million accidents.
The intensification of work and goodprofits allowed entrepreneurs to some extent reflect the needs of workers. Byfirst Decade XX Art. average wage of workers increased na23%. Increased layer of highly paid category of workers, especially in the automobile and steel industriesindustry. Average wages of American workersexceedshaft of highly paidworkers in England and Germany.
The huge mass of unskilledworkers had low earnings and resorted to the strike movement. Moststubbornly fight for their rights were miners and railway workers. Hundreds of thousandsworkers rose by a general strike May 1, 1886 Many of themachieved the 8-hour workday.
In general, the situation of U.S. workerswas such that ideas of the socialist movement here, in contrast to Europeancountries, the spread is not acquired. There was media created and Marxist desk.Workers preferred the trade union movement. In the U.S. it was mainlyeconomic. The largest union organization - AmericanFederation of Labor (AFP) led by S. Gompers, stood on the positions of co-operationand "business unionism." Gompers believed that the task of trade unions(Trade union) - not politics, not opposition to society, and business cooperationwith entrepreneurs in the organization Production andprotect the economic interests of union members.
In 1914 the AFP had in its ranks twomillion members. She united mainly highly skilled workers constituted 12-14% of the working class. In 1901by country Socialist Party was founded. Eugene Debs was headed.During the presidential election 1904, 1908, 1912 pp. she tried to gain access to power, but in vain. Authority began itsdecline and eventually it disintegrated.
6.Foreign Policy U.S.
In U.S. foreign policy were shown two trends: expansionismand isolationism (isolationists, especially Republicans advocated non-interference policy in European countries, "DocTrinhMonroe "in 1823 proclaimed:" America for Americans ")Growing economic strength entailed pursuit of external expansion.
Ekspansionisty stated that the time when the United States utrutytysya the fight for supremacy at sea.Ekspansionistiv chief ideologue a naval officer, historian and publicistMehem. He argued that sea power - a major factor, whichdetermines the fate of the country in the struggle for life and right to exist. In his view,to ensure the U.S. victory in the fight against other nations, there is only onepractical way out: a strong navy, the construction of newbases capture colonies, conquest of distant lands and the establishment of dominanceat sea.
Mehem considered the primary task of creating databasesislands in the Pacific and Atlantic oceans and the construction of the Panama Canal, whichspoluchyv like two oceans. The primary object of expansion would be, accordingMehema, Latin
In 1898 the U.S. went to war against Spain, which suppressedinsurrection in Cuba. The American fleet defeated the Spanish squadron near Cuba andPhilippines. Spain was forced to go on inkladennyaPeace.
Americantroops in Cuba Council in connection with victory
With peace treaty Cuba oholoshuvalasya independent. U.S.won at. Puerto Rico in the Caribbean and the Pacific Philippines, Fr.Guam, later on. Samoa and Hawaii.
President T. Roosevelt continuedexpansionary policy, dubbed "the great policystick. "practical embodiment of it appeared on Cuba and Colombia.
The result of the Spanish-American War
In 1902 the United States upon both Cuba amendmentthe Constitution to its proposed U.S. Senator Platt. Cuba prohibitselk to enter into agreements with other states withoutU.S. consent. Tim time on the island were allowed to create a U.S. databaseand enter the army there.
In 1903 the U.S. offered Colombiaproject to build a canal across the Isthmus of Panama, but Colombia rejected it.Then the U.S. supported the Panamanian separatists who devoured by gunsU.S. Navy ppoholocyly Republic of Panama. In designated areaprotected by American troops was built 81 km long canal. "Politicsbig stick "caused discontent in Latin America.
U.S. President William Taftsuggested that "diplomacy U.S. -masked implementation of economic policy of expansioncleaners. Further, thesetwo U.S. policy are closely intertwined.
Questions and Tasks
1. What are the specific features of economicdevelopment after the U.S. Civil War 1861-1865 pp.?
2. Tellon major reforms carried out in the U.S. naprykinthese XIX - Early XX cm. Discover their essence.
3. Describe the featuresdemocratic, labor, socialist movement in the U.S..
4. What was U.S. foreign policy?
Note the date!
1901-1908 pp. - Franklin D. Roosevelt Presidency.
1903 -Capture the U.S. Panama Canal Zone.