§ 24.Russian Empire end XIX -early XX Art.
1. Features of Economic DevelopmentRussia
60's Reforms pp. XIX Art. created conditions for rapid development of capitalist relations in Russia. But they had their features.Russia remained an agrarian country. The development of capitalist relations inagriculture took place in Prussian like - the landlords' farmsgradually rewent to the commoditycapitalist production. This ensured Wind in the formationcapitalist relations at a low initial capital accumulation.Predatory nature of the peasant reform played a primary roleaccumulation, but also created conditions for industry CHEAPworkforce.
However, this process is held back a number offactors. It was saved, especially the peasant "community" thatvpovilnyuvalo property stratification process. Industry, which has justcreated, could not provide jobs for many workers. In additionBut in Russia there was a population explosion: by the end XIX Art. population doubled. The development of capitalist relationstook place against the background of non-economic methods of preservation exoperation have to be peasants (vidrobitok, zdolschyna) and even patriarchal livelihoodmanagement.
Despite the slow developmentcapitalism in agriculture were conspicuous new phenomena. Socialbundles accompanied by an increasing number of farmers in agriculturaling hired workers. In the 70's pp. there were 700 thousand, and 90 - about 3.5 million, increased commercial production of bread.
Capitalist relations in the countrysidesuccessfully developed in areas where there were traditionally developed peasantlandowner or commodity economy, and novoosvoyenyh areas (south of UkraineNorthern Caucasus, Kazakhstan).
In Russia, later in other largeState finished industrial revolution, ie the transition to machine production.This happened in the 90 pp. XIX Art. However, itoccurred simultaneously with industrialization, which led to a high concentrationproduction and rapid growth. On 5% 54,1% of enterprises employed workers. The beginning of industrializationalso characterized by direct state intervention. It was done in the form of statetiveness and the financing of railway construction,under financialsaloons of heavy industries, especially steeland engineering, targeted government orders.
However, industrial development has been unevenin different parts of the country. The most rapidly evolved
Years of establishment
Їhnya role in producing
Syndicate "Prodamet - union mills south of Russia
80% Sales of products Russian metallurgical plants
Syndicate "Truboprodazh -
combining plants for the production of pipes
Concentrated all sales made in country pipes
Syndicate "Prodvahon - association wagon building
95% exclusive selling cars
Syndicate "Produhol - association Donbass coal enterprises
Supervised 75% of coal sales Southern Russia
Cartel Nobel-Fuel Oil -
oil industry association southern Russia
Control all the petroleum products market in Russia
Ukraine (Donets Basin, South), St. Petersburg, Moscow, Poland, Baltic states, someslower - industry Urals.
During the period from 1866 to 1903, the number of enterprisesincreased from 3 thousand to 9 thousand iron production in 1902 rose to 159 million pounds(In 1867 it produced only 17 million pounds). Coal production in 1902 reached abillion pounds (1867 - 159 million pounds).
One of the mills
The railway has become a grand scaleconstruction. The length of railway network has increased from 1488 km in 1861 to 52thousand miles at the end XIX Art.
On the economic development of Russiaaffected world financial and economic crisis 1899-1903 pp. At once sharply reduced the flowforeign investment. Lack of capital has led to concentration of production andto the emergence in Russia Monopolies"Prodamet, Prodvahon, Prodparovoz" and others. By1899-1908 pp. Number of companiesreduced by a quarter, and production has doubled. Prevailing rear monopolies werecartels and syndicates. Common completely monopolized industry wasnaftodobuvannya.
In the 1899-1903 crisis pp.another conspicuous feature Industrialdevelopment of Russia - a coincidence in time of processes of industrialismtion and monopolization, the heyday of free competition and limitations.
The bulk of Russian industry was handicraftproduction, which had employed almost 4 million people. Meanwhile, industrialproletariat was about 3 million, of which only 10% were human workers.Russia was at the initial stage of industrial society.
With 80 pp. XIX Art. actively in Russiaallowing a foreign capital. Foreignrynulys capitalists in the most profitable industries - oil,coal, steel, manobudivnu. They foundedindustrial companies, bought shares of companies. Especially the processincreased in early XX Art. In the oil industry, such as the household to the English trust"Oil and Anglo-Dutch trust Royal datch Shell.The wealth of raw materials and cheap labor provided highprofits.
Russian legislation promotedpenetration of foreign capital into the country. On the eve of World War Ibankers and businessmen from other countries can be safe in Russia without fear offor the fate of investments and loans. Total foreign ownership belonged to Russiathird of the capital of industrial companies and almost half the capital of ten largebanks. The tsarist government received large loans. Thus, Russia's foreign debtbefore the war amounted to 7.5 billion rubles. Dependence on foreigncapital tied to Russia of advanced capitalistStates influenced the choice of foreign priorities. Shapingsignificant layer of businessmen closely linked to foreign capital.
2. The formation of social structureRussian society industrial era
Formally, the Russian societyconsist of states. The states were divided into assessor (peasants, commoners) and nepodatni(Noblemen, clergy). The development of capitalismand caused the formation of new segments of society - businessmen (industrialists,financiers) and laborers (the proletariat). Great bulk of the populationwere farmers (77%). In the worst situation weresalaried workers in January4 million) for which the only means of existence remained saleits workforce.
Working conditions were severe. In 1879installed the 11.5-th mellon-time, but 13-14-hourtime yet long remained normalphenomenon. Often half earnings took penalties. Classifiedcircular interior workers were subject to administrativeexpulsion without trial for participating instrikes. It was forbidden to create unions.High was the degree exploitation of workers. Yes, with ruble,earned a worker, entrepreneur took away a 68 to 96 cents.
Widely used by children (8-10years) and female job, which paid fortwice cheaper than similar men.
Along with working classformed and the class of entrepreneurs. Hissocial base was the merchant class, wealthy peasants, the courtus. Feature class of entrepreneursnamely, that He was closelyassociated with state bureaucratic structure.
Capitalformed by owners of large publicth order. This eventually led to the king's support for big governmententrepreneurs.
Yet, despite undeniable progress insocio-economic development, Russia has remained predominantly agrarian country,because the share of industrial production waslower for ruralbusiness. The development of market relations fathercontradiction in society between work andcapital between entrepreneurs and rentalstheir employees, between the neweconomic relations and the old political system. All these problemssuperimposed on old ones. In particular, the country was not solved the agrarian question. It resulted in high social tensionsSociety Againsting 1861-1917 pp.
3. Labour movement
The plight of the workers generatedmovement to protect "their social rights.The most common form of struggle was the strike.
У XIX Art. Russia dominated the strike, which occurred as a reaction toworsening economic situation of workers. In fact, the workers demandedbetter terms of selling their labor. A typical example is the Morozovstrike in 1885 In 1897 the factory workers have made laws. At thefirst period there were labor organizations in Odessa, St. Petersburg and othercities.
Early XX Art. labor movement entered a new phase - struggle for political rights.
The first organized politicalperformance of workers occurred May 1, 1901 that day at the factory in ObukhovskiiPetersburg Workers strike in 1200. Afterarrest 26 leaders of strategicKoo joined himall 3500 workers of the plant. They seized the factory and have resisted the police andtroops.
In the summer of 1903 all south of the Russian Empire from Odessato Baku was assailed by a political strike, which was attended by 200 thousand.
So, soon the labor movementin Russia has become an influential, independent political force.
4. Russian Social-Democracy. G.Plekhanov. Lenin
The crisis of populism, the deployment of the labor movement ledto spread the ideology of Marxism in Russia. Rumor has it that the founder of Germanstate and its first Chancellor Bismarck once said his compatriot CharlesMarx: "Your theory of social development is very good, now isjust select the country you want to bring this theory to the victim. "
The first Marxist organization - Liberation troupeLabor was founded in Geneva in 1883 the Russian revolutionaries who rejected populism (G. Plekhanov, P.Axelrod, L. Deutsch, V. Zasulich andetc.).. Activists group considered its task to prepare the conditions for developmentsocial democratic movement in Russia. They translated in Russiancertain works of Marx and Engels and their spread in Russia, defeated the ideologypopulists, provedShea Its false. Especiallygreat merit in this field of activity is Г. Plekhanov (1856-1918). Exceptdestructive criticism populists, hesubstantiate the need for the establishment in Russia Marksystskoyi Party, 1883-1885 pp.made its first projects of the program.
In the 80 pp. XIX Art. in the industrial and political centers of Russia Marxist circles began to appear.
In spring 1895 almost two dozen Petersburg Social - democratic groups united under the leadership of V.Lenin in Union strugglefor the liberation of the working class. "By the time you Leninpovnylosya 25 years. In March 1897 the sameorganization Kiev create Social Democrats. Kyiv"Union ..." established production and distribution of all-"Rabochaya newspapersы. Similar alliances have in other Russian cities.
Consolidation groups was a step toward all-Social Democratic Party.
And the Social Democratic CongressLabour Party held in 1898 Mr. Minsk. 9 delegatesfrom 6 organizations announced the creation RSDLP, acknowledged "A working newspaper to its central authority and elected central committee RSDLP.But a few days and CC significant number ofsocial democrats were arrested, and printerNude "Rabochaya newspapersы"Destroyed.
Room, which held the first congress RSDLP
Early XX Art. RSDLP suggested reviving Lenin, Martov, and others.Lenin went abroad. With the support of leaders of the "Emancipation of Laborhe arranged the production of all-social-democratic newspaper"Iskra". It is, by its design, shouldwas to prepare the ideological-political and organizational beforeconditions of reproduction of the Social Democratic Party.Edited the newspaper Lenin with Plekhanov.
Meanwhile, the country louderrevolutionary movement. In spring 1902 there were massive peasant performances inPoltava and Kharkov provinces. Summer 1903 labor movement in the southRussia gained general political strike form.
In July-August 1903, in Brussels andsubsequently held in London II Congress RSDLP. Most of the delegates supported platform "Iskraы. The most important of its elements were Abstractsabout the "dictatorship of the proletariat" and of building the party on the basis "Democraticcentralism.
Discordant withplatform Iskraы"Delegates - Economist and Bundists (Jewish Social Democratic organization) have left the Congress and theIskra-ists provide absolute advantage. However, most of split-ists"Hard" and "soft." Contradictions were on the issuesorganizational structure of parties and some theoretical programspecifics Development."Soft" led by Martov advocated building Social DemocraticParty like European parties Parliamentarytype. "Solid", headed by Lenin insisted on creationof "new type" of "iron" discipline whichbe composed of "professional revolutionaries".
In the elections of centralmajority party entered"Solid" which later was called by them, and soft -Mensheviks. Over time, differences between the two factionWe deepenedso that actually formed two parties: RSDLP (b) and RSDLP (m). Lenin andG. Plekhanov were different many importantstrategy and tactics of the labor movement.
Lenin speaking at the secondCongress RSDLP
Plekhanov, who joined the Mensheviks, the main parliamentary forms of thoughtstruggle, not armed rebellion, the guiding force - the liberal bourgeoisie. Heproved untimely failure of the socialist revolution and constructionsocialism й Russia. The winnerthe dispute was Lenin.
5. OutdoorRussia's policy
End XIX - Early XX Art. Russian Empire continuedchewed its expansion. Like other big states, shecare of thirst for competition Colonialpossessions. The main objectwas Far East.
In 1891 construction beganStrategic Trans-Siberian Railway. This enabledRussia actively penetrate the Tuvu, Outer Mongolia, Manchuria. Usingto defeat China in the Sino-Japanese War 1894-1895 pp., Russia gained rights to build Sino-EastCheats from railway to Vladivostok across Manchuria and lease rights for 1925 Lyaodunskoho Peninsula with Port Arthur. In1899-1901 pp. Russia together with other major countries participated activelypart in suppressing the Boxer Rebellion in China (1899-1900 uprising Ihetuanskepp.). Penetration in Chinaprovoked opposition from Japan and England, which led to the Russo-Japanesecilia (1904-1905 pp.), in which Russia was defeated. However, they succeeded in tearing away the OuterMongolia from China and actually turned it into their colony.
Another important area of expansionremain Central Asia and Caucasus countries (Iran, Turkey).
End XIX - Early XX Art. Russia has established control over northern Iran, pre peredilyvshyhis into spheres of influence with England. And Englandand Russia have agreed on division of spheres of influence in Central Asia.
Regainedve your statusfiber States, Russia could not remain aloofglobal conflict between great powers. Russia's commitment soughtState Triple soybeansLaw - Germany,Austria-Hungaryschyna, Italy, which wanted to retain it at leastneutrality, while France seeing in Russia the only power that could containGermany. After all, Russia signed an alliance with France(1891-1893 pp.) and England (1907 p.).
Choice of Russia to France and England was caused by:excessive reluctance to strengthen Germany; desire to make territorialseizure, which they could provide Germany; dependence on RussiaFrench and English loans and capital.
Questions and Tasks
1. Expandfeatures of capitalist relations in Russia and in the countryside.
2. What was the controversydevelopment of Russia in the late XIX - Early XX cm. ?
3. Consider thatnegative and positive aspects of what little foreign capital penetration inRussia.
4. Find social statusRussian society at the turn of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.
5. Why Marxism becamespread it in Russia?
6. Onbased on additional sources tell us about the role of G, Plekhivnew and Lenin in the development of social democratic movement in Russia.
7. What causedreorientation of Russian foreign policy
8. Enter some basic directionsexpansion of Russia.
Note the date!
1890 pp. - Completion of the industrial revolution in Russia.
1883р. - Group"Emancipation of Labor.
1903was -II with’Congress RSDLP.
1904-1905 pp. - Russo-Japanese War