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Countries Europe (compendium)

Europe - this is the first area addressed in the regional part of the course. The study of regions is based on the material of general review of the world. Describing the population of natural-resource potential of the industry or economy of any region of the world it is desirable to additionally use the relevant maps of the world and comments to them.

political map of Europe has experienced significant changes in the 90-ies of XX century. and continues to change. Events in recent years not only changed the face of the continent, but also significantly influenced the whole world.

1989-1990 years.

There have been anti-totalitarian revolution and the democratic changes in Bulgaria, East Germany, Romania, Czechoslovakia, Poland and Hungary. Ceased military organization of the Warsaw Pact and the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (CMEA), which are the main factors of integration in Central Europe, the times of socialism.


Association of West and East Germany into one state. The collapse of the Soviet Union and the emergence of the former Soviet Union a new political entity - the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), which included all the countries of the former USSR, except for Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Georgia. The latter joined the CIS in 1994. The disintegration of Yugoslavia and the formation on its territory of new sovereign states.


division of Czechoslovakia into two independent states - the Czech Republic and Slovakia. Transformation of the European Economic Community into the European Union. Strengthening of integration processes in Europe to create an economic, political unification within a single European space.


EU accession of Austria, Sweden and Finland.


first wave of NATO enlargement: new members were Poland, Czech Republic, Hungary.


introduction of the euro in cash.


next wave of NATO expansion (seven new members) and EU (the ten new Member States).

In 2006, the map of Europe, a new state - Montenegro.

Europe was and remains one of the leading economic and political centers of the world. The total GDP of the European region accounts for almost 30% of the world. The territorial structure of the economy of Europe has developed mainly in the past century. Most developed areas, are gravitating to the central axis of development, stretching from the industrial areas of Britain, through the valley of the Rhine to central Italy. The central axis of development include the industrial areas of eight European countries: the metropolitan areas of Greater London and the Greater Paris, the Ruhr area (Rhine-Ruhr agglomeration), the industrial triangle of Milan - Turin - Genoa in Italy, industrial and urban agglomeration Randstad in the Netherlands, etc. .

leading economy in the European region are the industry's avant-garde trio, which provide technical and technological progress.

In the region there are significant internal differences, given that Europe is divided into sub-regions: Western, Central and East.

In the Western sub-region comprises 25 countries that territorial jurisdiction is divided into three groups:

Northern Europe (Iceland, Norway, Finland, Sweden, Denmark);

Central Europe (Ireland, Britain, France, Belgium, Netherlands, Luxembourg, Germany, Austria, Switzerland and Liechtenstein);

Southern Europe (Spain, Portugal, Italy, Greece, Andorra, San Marino, Monaco, Vatican, Gibraltar, Malta).

Central European countries form a continuous territorial array in the middle of Europe between Western Europe and the European part of Russia, which belong to Eastern Europe. This is a country in transition economies: Philippines, Poland, Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, Belarus, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Romania, Moldova, Slovenia, Croatia, Macedonia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, Montenegro and Albania.