🚚 🚁 Збираємо на пікап та ремонт дрона аутел

⛑ 🛡 🥾 Шоломи, форма, взуття

International economic relations (compendium)

world economy as a single system of interlinked national economies was formed on the basis of international geographical division of labor (MPPU). MPPU - a specialization of individual countries in the production of certain products and services and sharing. Interstate relations in the field of economics called international economic relations . The main forms of international economic relations is: foreign trade, credit and financial relations, scientific and technical relations, international tourism . On this map provides information on foreign trade, credit and financial relations.

formation and development of international economic relations began to foreign trade. Foreign trade volumes are constantly growing, changing structure of trade, especially rapidly growing share of new technologies, products and services. In the world there were three centers of international trade: Europe, Asia Pacific and North America. Turnover in Western Europe is about 40% of the world. For absolute volume of exports in the world Germany takes first place. Another turnover by region is Asia (approximately 26%). In it the main centers of international trade are the Japan, China, new industrialized countries (NICs) and the oil Gulf States. In third place in terms of foreign trade North America (about 20% of world trade). For U.S. imports have no competitors. It is important to trade between developed countries and developing countries. The status of applications for industrial raw solutionynutyh more characteristic of most developing countries. They still remain the main suppliers of oil, copper, cotton, natural rubber and food products: coffee, cocoa, sugar, bananas and more. But exports NICs of Asia and Latin America have recently significantly increased the share of manufactured goods.

important indicator of foreign trade balance of trade is (balance) - the difference between the cost value of exported and imported goods for the year. Balance is passive (negative) and active (positive). Traditionally, high positive balance (the value of exports dominated by the cost of imports) are Japan, Germany. Negative balance in the U.S. are the result of large imports of raw materials and fuel from developing countries.

International trade growing by objective economic laws and coordinated World Trade Organization (WTO) . This organization unites 145 countries. Its main function is to create strong and prosperous world trading system, which will increase the volume of international trade.

credit and financial relations are shown in exporting (export of capital) in two forms: loans and credits and direct investment in the establishment of enterprises on foreign territory, or purchase of already existing companies to profit or to satisfy their political interests. Exports of capital - one of the most important features of foreign economic activity in developed countries. The main form of capital exports are direct investments, ie those which give an investor the right to control the activities of a particular object. The bulk of these investments provide the greatest transnational corporations (TNCs) world: Nestle (Switzerland) , General Motors (USA) , Royal - Dutch - Shell (UK-Netherlands), Hitachi (Japan), Daimler - Chrysler ( Germany - USA) and others. Developed countries exporting capital intensive in developing countries, there perebazovuyuchy environmentally wkidlyvi production, using low-paid work force by exploiting the natural resources of these countries. Along with investing in the country, developing, developed countries are investing heavily in their developed economy partners that are less risky but less profitable. So part of the Japanese capital is directed to the U.S. economy and Western Europe. EU countries invest their capital both within the Union and the regions in transition. Areas of investment are shown on the map.

Also on the map presents the main banking and financial centers of the world, parts of which are national and international banks (international consortium of banks), stock and commodities - raw. In the world are two kinds of world financial centers: one established on the basis of national Capital Markets (London, Paris, Zurich), others - on the basis of international Capital Markets (Singapore, Hong Kong ).

important components of the global economy is offshore - some of the country or territory in which has a preferential tax treatment, credit and foreign exchange controls and created the conditions for simplified registration of enterprises in order to ensure maximum favorable conditions for foreign capital. Now more than 100 countries and territories have offshore centers. But in the industrialized countries this practice is not widespread. Analogy offshore zones in Ukraine Special economic zones and priority development territories .