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Latin America (compendium)

Latin American region to include Mexico, Central America (the Central America isthmus and the Caribbean) and country of mainland South America from the surrounding islands. Among the countries of the region is a colony of USA, France, Britain and the Netherlands.

name comes from Latin America Latin , the core of the Romance languages: Spanish, Portuguese, French, in which speaking majority population of the region.

Countries Latin America , except Cuba, the group of developing countries, but in terms of economies of most of them ahead of country Developing Africa and Asia. However, levels of development in individual countries of the region there are significant differences. The most advanced in the region are Brazil, Mexico, Argentina, Chile, Venezuela and Colombia. Their economy is a significant portion of new manufacturing industries: machinery, metal working, chemical and oil refining. Brazil, Mexico and Argentina related to NIK. These countries are sometimes called Big Three. They account 2 / 3 industry production. Most developed countries of the region together in MERCOSUR (map International Organizations ). In Latin America, based on economic-integration movements MERCOSUR , formed by the fourth power center of world trade and finance.

Brazil - one of the largest in terms of territory and rich natural resources of the world. Brazil wood stock reaches one third of the world. Opened in 1500 Brazil got its name from the chief at the time of natural wealth, which showed the Portuguese colonizers in the country. It was sandalwood ( pau-brasil ), from which produced a valuable purple dye.

Today the country has large reserves of fresh water hidroenerhoresursamy and various minerals. Unlike most developing countries, in Brazil's industrial structure is dominated by processing industries: metallurgy (seventh place in the world in steel production), machinery (particularly transport: aircraft manufacturing, shipbuilding), and manufacturing of electronics and computer technology. An important source of income of the country is to produce and export coffee, which became one of Brazil's national symbols. In countries represents

less developed countries in the region is the Central America isthmus and Bolivia. Small islands of the Caribbean specializing mainly on primary processing of agricultural raw materials (sugar, coffee, juices, canned), or extraction of minerals (Jamaica) and the provision of travel services.

In countries with backward economic structure (Paraguay, Colombia) prevails handicraft enterprise producing semi-finished products and consumer character. In the Caribbean, is Cuba - a country centrally controlled economy. In MPPU she specializes in growing sugar cane, citrus, tobacco. The country has significant recreational resources.

In the South American mainland are two subregions: Andean (mountain country west of Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Chile) and La Plata s or the Atlantic (the country's eastern part of mainland Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay, Brazil). Differences between the geographical location of the two subregions are shown in the agricultural specialization of countries.

modern economy of Latin America, characterized by some common features have historically been and continue to define the economic face of the region. This is, firstly, bahatoukladnist economy (public sector, cooperative sector, handicraft production, latyfundiyi - large private landholdings). Second, the narrow specialization of the economy: monokulturnist in agriculture monoproduktovist in the industry. Thirdly, the dependence on foreign capital and foreign debt problem.