§ 12. Resursozabezpechenist. Nature: rational and irrational.
Natural resources and environment. Heavy human impact on nature associated primarily with the need for natural resources. Natural resources - are components and the forces of nature that at a certain level of development productive forces and the degree of investigation are or may be used in agriculture.
XXI century with its scientific and technical achievements not released person from having to remove significant amounts of natural resources. On the contrary, modern production requires a greater number and diversity of natural resources than ever before.
First, natural resources - a source of energy, which is crucial imagine the modern world (fuel minerals, hydropower, nuclear fuel, solar power, wind, tidal). Natural resources - the means and items of work people (land land, water transport routes, water for irrigation and industrial purposes), raw materials for the production (Raw materials, forest resources, process water, atmospheric air). A person can not do without water, vegetable products fishing, food, vegetable and animal origin.
There are different classifications of natural resources: origin, way of economic use, the degree of completeness.
By origin or relation to a shell of the earth emit such natural resources: lithospheric (mineral, land, internal Earth energy), atmospheric (solar power, wind power, agro-climatic) hidrosferni (fresh water, water, oceans); biosphere (animal, plant) natural resources.
By way of economic use of resources can be divided into: production (industrial, agricultural) and non-productive. To industrial production resources traditionally include various fuel and energy resources and various kinds of industrial raw materials, water, land and biological resources. Agricultural consider soil agro-climatic and natural resources. Resource areas are non- recreational resources, in particular - picturesque landscapes, favorable climatic conditions, curative mud and mineral springs.
There is also direct the use of resources are withdrawn from the environment (herbs, berries, mushrooms).
All natural resources by the degree of completeness is divided into exhaustive and inexhaustible. Number of renewable resources decreases with removal from their geographical environment. Comprehensive resources for self-healing ability divided into: renewable and irreplaceable.
Renewable resources can be recovered under certain conditions. These resources include biological resources and soil. Fish, forest resources, Industrial animals can recover its number provided restrict their use by man. But this is only possible failure to achieve "critical point" at which self without help unreal man. In this connection, allocate specific genetic resources hereditary information is contained in the genetic code of living things. As a result of rampant and worsening living conditions many species of living creatures have disappeared or are endangered.
Nonrenewable natural resources are mineral resources. They formed over a long geological development of the Earth and under continued use can not be restored. Annually from the earth's interior produce over 100 billion tons of various minerals and fuel. Only 1,5-2% is converted to final product. These resources should used efficiently, economically and, if possible, again.
Inexhaustible natural resources referred to those that are not reduced under their use. This climatic resources (solar, wind, inflow, outflow). They are not consumed directly in economic activities do not destroy, but in the process they can use deteriorate. In the recent past to the inexhaustible zarahovuvaly air and water. However, increasing anthropogenic impact encouraged to refer them to a comprehensive, though renewable resources.
Natural conditions - the combination of different components of geographical environment, which have influence on the man and his economic activity.
Resursozabezpechenist. Describing the natural resources and evaluating possibilities of economic use, taking into account not only absolute but relative and qualitative. For the quality of include the contents of useful component in the raw materials (eg metal red), presence of impurities (eg, sulfur in coal). Relative indicators show resursozabezpechenist. Resursozabezpechenist - ratio between the size of natural resources and their use.
Resursozabezpechenist expressed as the number of years, which has enough resources, or its reserves per capita, unit territory. For example, world oil production in modern conditions last for 50 years, while in Saudi Arabia have enough reserves 140 years and in the USA - 10. Size of proven coal reserves World per capita is 210 tons, while in China - 90 tonnes UK - 1500 tons
Resursozabezpechenist determined by natural factors - stocks resource in a particular area and socio-economic - value production and consumption.
Natural resources are located on the globe is very uneven and that difference is caused by conditions of their formation. Consequently, some regions countries differ resursozabezpechenistyu certain types of resources. To States that have all types of known resources include the U.S., Russia, China.
Earth's growing population, expansion of economic impact on the environment placed on the agenda problem keeping balance in the system "Society-nature".
Use of natural resources and measures for their conservation are called natural resources. According to rational nature environment is not exposed to the catastrophic impact of production human activity, is in a state of ecological balance, ie provided his full recovery, and natural resources used comprehensively, waste - discarded. For irrational natural environment every year deteriorates, leading to local, regional and global environmental problems.
Ideally, the coexistence of man and nature should be harmonious and exclusively rational nature. However, in most countries Nature is not rational, leading to depletion resources, environmental pollution. Therefore, mankind should reflect on the unique natural beauties in national parks and national parks, the introduction of complex technologies use of raw materials, processing and subsequent disposal of waste construction of treatment facilities, use of technology closed Water industry, developing new, environmentally friendly fuels. A rational approach even with intensive use of natural resources will preserve the natural and anthropogenic complexes.
In Iceland, geothermal enrhiya used in central heating systems
Glossary of Terms and Concepts
Natural-resource potential of the territory - Set in a particular area of natural resources and their ability to meet human needs.