§ 13.Heohrafiya world's natural resources: mineral, land, forest, water and recreation.
Housekeeper for any state at the current stage of development of particular importance mineral resources. Mineral resources - natural substances of mineral origin that is used in economy as raw material or energy source. They are fundamental material production and use in all its branches.
Rate deepening pretty hard because it is impossible determine their value in the crust. Depending on the degree of exploration resource stocks differ from projected to explored. Rating of mineral resources may vary over time. Through scientific and technological advances are available to operate more and new fields.
Mineral resources (fuel, metal, engineering, construction materials) because of them extracted raw material for various industrial productions, often called minerals
In the earth's crust has more than 200 kinds of mineral resources, including produce more than 160. Annually from the earth's interior producing over 120 billion tons various raw materials and fuel. Modern accommodation minerals world - is the result of long and complex process of geological development Earth. It is closely related to geological and tectonic structure. The natural accumulation of minerals known deposits, and accumulation deposits - Pool minerals.
Mineral resources depending on the scope of their use of shared for: fuel and energy (coal, oil, natural gas, uranium, thorium shale oil, etc.) ore (ore iron, foundry and refractory; ferrous, precious metals), non-metallic: a) steel (fluxes, refractory), b) mining and chemical (apatites, nepheline, rock, potassium salt, sulfur, sulfur kidney, barium, phosphorus), c) technical (Diamond, plaster, natural stone).
Refineries in the U.S.
Fuel and energy resources of the world pretty significant, but they are to comprehensive and irretrievable. In their structure dominated by coal (Black and brown) - 75%. Its resources are concentrated in 3 thousand pools in 75 countries mainly Northern Hemisphere. 2 / 3 of world reserves coal comes from four countries: USA, Russia, India and China. The most powerful in the world coalfield - Tunhuskyy, Lensky, Kuznetsk, Ruhr and Appalachian. ? world reserves of brown coal falls on the U.S. and Russia. Top Bath - Lensky, Cannes-Achinsk, Cologne.
Oil and gas, due to similar geological origin in most cases occur together. Today, the world's prospected over 600 oil and gas basins. Over? world's oil is concentrated in Saudi Arabia. Almost? gas reserves accounted for Russia and the countries Near and Middle East.
Essential stocks of nuclear fuel for nuclear power - uranium - Allocated U.S., Canada, Kazakhstan, South Africa, Australia.
Fuel and geothermal resources
In New Zealand very high share of geothermal energy in total energy balance
Ore (metal) resources their content in the Earth's crust is divided into two categories - common (content over 0.1%) and rare.
By using ore ores are divided into:
The first group, which is the raw material for steel industry, are iron, manganese, chromium and nickel ore. The largest supply them are South Africa, Australia, Brazil and Kazakhstan. By ore reserves of ferrous metals: copper, aluminum, polymetallic, Tin highlighted Australia, China, Russia. Precious metals - gold, silver and platinum - are concentrated in few countries. Leading role including the USA, Canada, South Africa, Russia, Australia.
Pits. Belo Horizonte, Brazil
Metallic mineral resources have different origins and use. The largest reserves of potassium salt - raw materials for producing acids, fertilizers - highlighted Canada, USA, Russia, Germany. For stocks brimstone leading position of the U.S. and Mexico, are also significant reserves in Poland, Ukraine and Russia. Phosphorites located in the U.S., Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Apatity - Russia, China.
With numerous types of technical material by the greatest value specific physical properties have the resources of diamonds, asbestos, graphite. The bulk of diamonds is concentrated in three areas: in South Africa (South Africa, Botswana, Namibia), in Australia and Russia (Yakutia). Asbestos reserves differ Russia (Ural), South Africa, Zimbabwe and Canada. Graphite deposits are located in Russia, China, India, Sweden, Mexico.
Provision of regional stocks of various types of mineral resources played a large role in forming and placing many areas of the world economy. Use of mineral raw materials, the level of its involvement in production, the degree of technological and environmental treatment is an indicator of the economy. Economically developed countries tend to act as a consumer of mineral resources, and developing countries, their producers and exporters.
Land. One of the greatest wealth of any country is its land resources. Land - part of the earth's surface suitable for life and commercial activity. The territory also can be considered a kind of resource. It serves as the basis for spatial locations of all branches of the main means of production agriculture and forestry. The area has become a kind of deficit, especially in small room, but with numerous population countries (Japan, Netherlands, Denmark).
Glossary of Terms and Concepts
Reclamation - Full or partial restoration of the landscape, broken by humans.
World Land Fund is 13.4 billion hectares (the area of land without Antarctica and Greenland), or 26,3% of the total area of the globe.
Since they account for
Sahara covers large territories of Algeria and Libya
If all the Land Fund (13 400 million hectares) to take 100%, then largest share (25%) will be determined by Russia, and the lowest (6%) - on Australia and Oceania. The largest share falls on pastures Africa (24 %). Arable land (11% land fund) give 88% of food. Pastures and meadows, which occupy 26% of the land fund, give another 10% products.
Countries and regions unequally provided with land, especially agricultural land. In Eurasia account 59% of global arable land, to North and Central America - 15% of Africa - 15% of South America - 8% of Australia - 3%. Most part (80%) of the world arable land is located in the arid zone. Most share pastures - in Africa (24%) and Asia (18%).
The rate of world agricultural land to capita is - 0,23 hectares. In different countries this figure significantly different. d Australia it is - 2,45 hectares, Canada - 1.48 ha, Russia - 0,9 hectares. In China, Bangladesh and Belgium each resident accounts for 0.07 ha, Egypt - 0,05 hectares, Japan - 0,03 hectares.
Unsustainable land use has repeatedly led to environmental management, even to death of civilizations. SKD U.S. plains, virgin lands of Kazakhstan caused blowing and flushing huge quantities of mineral water particles that no human impact remained motionless for thousands of years. In large areas of steppe and prairie dust storms raged, yellow fog of dust postponed to hundreds of miles from the crash site.
The problem of land shortage in India is very serious
Today almost no remaining land that can absorb more. Along with the agricultural use is removed annually by various data, 6-7 million hectares of agricultural land through waterlogging, salinization, desertification, wind erosion. To pause This process should be made of measures of land protection.
Water - one of the most common and specific substances in nature. It is believed that life originated in water on our planet. Water resources - surface and ground water used or can be use in economic activities.
Water resources are divided into fresh water land, including surface water (rivers, lakes, glaciers, artificial ponds, marshes) Yi groundwater, water seas and oceans.
In the water of the oceans for 71% of the world. With 31.4 billion km3 volume of water of the hydrosphere, about 96.5% is the Ocean, 1,7% - of underground water, 1,7% - on ice, less than 0,01% - to surface water (rivers, lakes, swamps).
Using water icebergs - one way reduce water shortages
First, demand is fresh water. The main source of fresh water for industry, agriculture, domestic needs were remaining river water. They are unevenly distributed. Top the full resources of the river flow is concentrated in Asia and Latin America, and the least endowed with this resource is Australia.
One of the many canals of Amsterdam
At the equator and north temperate countries located on largest resource of full river flow. Per capita here accounting for 25 thousand m3 of water per year. By this measure entails the following Countries like the Congo (320 thousand m3), Liberia (75 thousand m3), Canada (98 thousand m3), Venezuela (60 thousand m3), Brazil (43 thousand m3), Norway (90 thousand m3), Russia (30 thousand m3).
In the drylands, which cover about 30% of the Earth water scarcity is felt especially acutely. Here are the least vodozabezpecheni countries: South Africa, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, India, China.
The peculiar chambers of freshwater lakes and reservoirs are. Thus, Russia's Lake Baikal mstytsya 26% of the world's fresh water, and African Lake Victoria, the largest by area in the world, contains as much fresh water as the reservoir will contain all of India.
The main part (69%) of world water resources mankind uses in agriculture for irrigation. Water resources used in industry as a solvent chemicals and industrial water for cooling and production electricity.
Niagara Falls. Slow destruction margin can lead to a connection Lakes Ontario and Erie
Hydropower resources - energy reserves rivers and reservoirs, lying above sea level. Half of these stocks accounted for by China, U.S., Russia, DRC, Canada and Brazil. Used for construction of hydropower plants. Maximum hidroenerhoresursy used in Europe (Norway, Sweden, Switzerland) and North America (Canada).
Forests - Wood, technical, food, fodder, medicines and other resources, and useful natural properties forest (protection, water protection, recreation).
Woods - "lungs" of our planet. They play an important klimatotvirnu, water and soil protection, erosion and recreational role. Forest resources belong to the exhaustive, but renewable resources. Forests are source of wood, used in construction and furniture industry. Wood also provides raw materials for the production of resin, cork, raw materials for synthetic fibers. In the woods hunting industry focus land, food (nuts, berries, mushrooms) resources.
Forests cover about 25% of the planet's surface. It is 41 million km2 land. Wood stock - 330 billion m3. This figure is constantly changing: forest grows, it cut down. Unfortunately, the pace of forest clearing rates exceeding recovery.
Conditionally all world forests are divided into two zones: the north, including Forests in temperate, subtropical zones, and south, covering equatorial area, subekvatorialnoho and tropical zones.
Half of the forests is on the northern forest zone. It is mainly coniferous forests. A significant portion of this forest belongs to Russia Canada, the United States. Among the northern forest zone is to provide Finland, Sweden, where the share of territory covered by forests is 60%.
Autumn forest. Canada
The forests of the southern forest zone is mainly represented broadleaf species. Within this zone, especially emit Latin America both in terms of forest cover and in terms stocks of wood. Recognized leader of Brazil. It ranks third in world (after Russia and Canada) in terms of area under forest cover. Large forested regions characterized by such a small area of the country, like Suriname (96,2%), Belize (92.1%), Guyana (83.8%). On the African continent large timber resources are concentrated in its central part. Here emit such wooded country like the Democratic Republic of the Congo Cameroon, Congo, Equatorial Guinea. Highest figure forested lands are marked and Pacific island countries (Fiji, Solomon Islands, Papua New Guinea).
Countries that have significant forest resources, are essential suppliers of wood on the world market. Therefore, these countries can be traced tendency to reduce the forest areas. The main cutting occurs in developing countries, of tropical America and Asia. In these countries are working hardly on lisovidtvorennya. Dangerous was deforestation in mountainous areas. This leads to the mountain desertification. In developed countries of the Northern Hemisphere - Finland, Sweden, Canada - reforestation than cutting.
For 20 years the world has lost almost 200 million hectares of forests. It is so much But how much is the U.S. area east of the Mississippi. Together with destruction of forests utrachayutsya unique landscapes disappear thousand species plants and animals. Extremely disastrous deforestation in Amazon and Indonesia.
Natural and recreational resources.
Natural and recreational resources- Natural environment, objects, phenomena that can be used for recreation and restoration of health.
Rest Area on the shores of mountain lakes. Canada
Evaluates these resources for biomedical products, which stipulates is climate and weather. Particularly important are indicators of stability weather, temperature and humidity, creating an effect of comfort for humans. Also, take into account the psychological and aesthetic impact assessment various natural landscapes. The largest positive effect gives the combination water and land (beaches, coastal seas, rivers, lakes), the average effect gives the lawn and forest, weak effect - the hills and plains.
Sea coast in southern Italy
Accordingly, optimal healing effect on a person carries combination of warm sea water and mountain landscape in a sustainable warm climate. Mediterranean, Baltic, Florida peninsula, Hawaii, Bahamas, Canary Islands, east coast of Australia due to its natural conditions are world resorts.
In one of the islands of Oceania
To natural recreational resources are also exits springs and therapeutic mud. Important role for the rest of people have green park area around the cities, national parks.