§ 27. Russian Federation.
Area: 17 075.4 thousand km2
Population: 140 041 000 (2010)
Official name: Russian Federation
Political System: Federal Republic
Legislature: Bicameral Federal Assembly (Parliament: the State Duma and Federation Council)
President: President (elected for 4 years)
Administrative structure: 83 federated entities: 21 Republic, 9 regions, 46 regions, 2 federal cities - Moscow and St. Petersburg, one autonomous oblast and 4 autonomous districts. All territory is divided into seven federal districts
Common religion: Christianity (Orthodoxy), Islam, Judaism
Member: UN, CIS (1991)
National Holiday: Day of the Declaration of Independence of Russia (12 June)
EGP and natural resources potential. Russia - State Eastern Europe and Northern Asia. It borders with North Korea, China, Mongolia, Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Ukraine, Belarus, Poland, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, Finland, Norway. Has access to Sea basin three oceans the Atlantic, Pacific and North Arctic, they account for 2 / 3 of all the nation. It occupies first place in the world.
The surface of the country has a complex structure. Overall surface area predominantly flat - up to 70% represent the plains and plateaus. Most of the European territory of Russia is located within East European Plain. In the south - the northern slopes of the Caucasus, in northwest - Mount Hibiny. To the east of the Urals - the West Siberian plain surrounded by mountains in the south of Southern Siberia (Altai, Sayan Mountains Baikal, Transbaikalia). Between the Yenisey and Leno located Srednosybirske plateau, between Leno and the Pacific Ocean - and ridges Highlands North-East Asia. East of the country belongs to the seismically dangerous. On the Kamchatka Peninsula is located 120 volcanoes, 23 of them are applicable. Geographically the country geographically and can be divided into three large natural regions: the European part, Siberia, the Far East.
Most of the country's territory lies in the temperate zone. Climate changes of the sea in the far northwest to the sharply continental in Siberia and monsoonal in the Far East. Average January temperatures from 0 to-500C, July 1 to 250S. Annual precipitation from 150 to 2000 mm per year. In many parts of Siberia and the Far East - perennial frost. Within Russia recorded the lowest temperature Northern Hemisphere: 720S-in area of
The country has significant reserves of water resources. On its territory there are More than 120 large and small rivers, most of them are Lena, Irtysh, Yenisei, Ob, Volga, Amur, North Dvina, Pechora, Kolyma, Don, the largest lake - Caspian, Baikal, Ladoga, Onega, Hanka. Most rivers are shipping, the total of shipping is more than 400 thousand km.
From north to south in Russia located natural areas: arctic deserts, tundra, tundra, forests (taiga, mixed and deciduous), forest-steppe, steppe, semidesert. A large area Russia occupied by coniferous forests, which are divided in species composition of svitlohvoynu (pine, Siberian larch and daurska) and temnohvoynu taiga (spruce, fir, cedar pine). 2 / 5 of the country covered by forests, it is - the largest forest resources in the world. In many parts of Siberia and the Far East - the permafrost.
Minerals has a rich list: petroleum, natural gas, stone and brown coal, peat, ore: iron, manganese, color metals: bauxite, chromite, vanadium, copper, lead, tin, nickel, zinc, cobalt, tungsten, molybdenum, antimony, mercury, uranium, gold, platinum, platinum, chemical raw materials: apatites, phosphates, sulfur, magnesite, asbestos, mica, graphite, potassium and kitchen, Glauber salt, diamonds, semi-precious stones (amethyst, garnet, topaz), malachite, jade, marble, etc..
Population. Russia - a multinational state with colorful ethnic and religious composition of the population, 80% of which are Russians, but they live in the country of 156 people, most numerous of them - Tatar, Ukrainian, Bashkir, Chuvash, Chechens, Germans, Belarusians, Kazakhs, Jews, coma, Buryatia.
Main religion - Christianity, many believers - Orthodox (90%) are Muslims, Buddhists and others. Many people - Non-believers and skeptics (the consequences of over seven decades of atheistic of Soviet power). The official language is Russian, its people speak over 100 languages
The average population density - 8.5 persons. km2, over 80% of the population residing in the European part of the country, representing about 30% of its territory, urban population is 73% of the total. The average population density in the European part of the country exceeds 100 people. per km2. This represents an uneven distribution of population territory of the state and a high level of urbanization. The largest city and with them most of the population is concentrated in the so-called "The main bar of the resettlement of the population," which is a putative large triangle, the apex of which is in the North - St. Petersburg, for south - Novorossiysk, on the east - Krasnoyarsk. Within this triangle are major cities, home to one fifth of the total population. Major cities in Russia, 10, most of them located in the European part of the country: Moscow, St. Petersburg, Nizhny Novgorod, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg, Samara, Omsk, Chelyabinsk, Kazan, Ufa.
"Aurora" - the ship-museum. Russia
The largest urban areas of Russia are Moscow, St. Petersburg, Yekaterinburg, Nyzhnonovhorodska. Three of them (except Yekaterinburg) is located in the European part country. Agglomerations concentrated in a core scientific, cultural and industrial potential of the country.
Channels Saint - Petersburg
Rural population posted to the country as unevenly. Most of the rural population - in the steppe and forest-steppe zones with the best conditions for rural development economy. In southern European part of almost half the population lives in villages.
Almost 70% of the country make little use for living areas Far North and similar, where there are no more than 8% population.
The demographic problem in Russia is low fertility rates and low average life expectancy (male - 62 years, women - 73).
Ekaterinburg (from 1924 to 1991 - Sverdlovsk), city on the eastern slope of the Middle Urals, the banks of the river Iset, Tobol River tributary. A large knot of iron and highways, airports and has 2 Subway. The city was founded in 1723 associate of the Russian tsar Peter I, the historian and statesman Basil Tatishchev as Mining, cultural and shopping center in the Urals.
The main industry is the heavy engineering industry (production association "Uralmash", "Uralhimmash", "Uralelektrotyazhmash", "Turbomotornyy Factory ", factory drilling and metallurgical equipment, transport engineering, bearing, compressor, tool, etc.); instrumentation, electrical industry, plants fine mechanics, opto-mechanical, refrigerators, Upper Isetskij Steel Works, rubber products, tire, chemical-pharmaceutical (Medicines, antibiotics, beauty Concern "Kalina"); construction materials, wood, light, fur factory) flavoring industry. Plant "Ural gems" - known stone-carving industry.
The city is working Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, about 140 research, engineering and design institutes and organizations. In culturally interesting buildings, museums Bazhova Paul, Dmitry mother's-Siberians.
Novosibirsk (from 1903 to 1925 - Novonikolayevsk), the city of southeast of West Siberia, on the banks of the river Ob. Node rail lines and highways, river and airport are all underground.
Novosibirsk - large industrial center of Western Siberia, the main industries which are electricity (Novosibirsk HPP); Fuel and oil ("Novosybirsknaftohaz" "Novosybirskvuhillya"), metallurgy (steel works, Tin Plant) Engineering: Energy and Electric ("Sybelektrotyazhmash" Electric), Machine Tool (VAT "Siberian factory integrated electric drive", heavy machines and plants hydraulic), instrumentation, precision engineering, aircraft construction, electronic industry, forestry and wood processing, production building materials, textile machinery, chemical and pharmaceutical ("Novosibirsk plant medicines," "Novosybirskhimfarm"); light, food.
The city is the Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk State University Agricultural and Technical University, Medical Academy, conservatory and more. The village is Krasnoobsk Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Agricultural Sciences in Village Koltsovo - Scientific-Production Association "Vector", which deals development of fundamental and applied aspects of biotechnology. At 28 km. on south of the center located in Novosibirsk Academic town complex of research institutes, homes, public utility.
Samara (From 1935 to 1991 - Kuibyshev), the city of left banks of the river Volga. Samara fortress was built in 1586 for Health Volga trade route, in 1600 there was arranged Customs and marina. Today Samara - a significant transportation hub with dense network of railways and highways, are river port, Airport Subway.
The main industries: aerospace engineering (Of space technology, aircraft Tu-154 aircraft engine) Oil and Gas (factory "Truck", "Volgaburmash") load technique, "Srednovolzkyy Machine Plant" Plant instrument transformers, ball bearing factories, production TV "Cascade", black and nonferrous metallurgy, oil refining, electrical engineering, building materials, light, food.The city - wide network of scientific and educational institutions: research and design institutes, universities.
Economy. Russia - industrial-agricultural country, whose territory conditionally divided into 12 economic regions (North, Northwest, Central, Volga-V'yatskyy, Central Black Earth, Volga, the Northern, Ural, West Siberian, Shidnosybirskyy, Far East, Kaliningrad region).
The composition of GDP agriculture gives 4.1%, industry - 41.1%, services - 54.8% of the total cost.
Russia inherited about 60% of the powerful economic potential Soviet Union. For the country's economy is characterized by complex diversified structure with a predominance of industrial production, branched agriculture, a strong own mineral raw material base, developed scientific potential security personnel qualifications (in Russia are more than 450 state universities, including 40 universities).
Industry. The market economy is based on the powerful mining industry and energy sector.
In terms of oil country ranks third in the world. West Siberian and Volga-Uralskij petroliferous region give the country more than 350 million tons of oil per year and over 600 m3 of gas (second place in world). Kuznetsk, South-Yakut, Pechora, Kansk-Achinsk, Neryunhrinskyy pools give more than 300 million tons of coal.
Hydroelectric powerBuilt during the Soviet power, negatively affecting the environment. Most of them formed a large reservoir, removing large areas of fertile land placed on these settlements, historic landmarks and architecture. Over trillion kilowatt hours of electricity produced cascades of powerful hydropower plants on the Volga, Kama, Angara, Yenisei. About 70% provide powerful energy power plants in areas of mining hard and brown coal, oil (Urals, Kuzbass, European part of Russia). There are Kursk, Voronezh, Leningrad, Komsomolskaya and other nuclear power plants. Unified Energy System of the country together Energy Systems Centre, North West, Volga, North Caucasus, the Urals, Siberia and Far East. In addition to traditional in Russia using wind, forced, geothermal energy. Except Kuril-Kamchatka zone, thermal energy is used to heating in the North Caucasus, Buryatia, Tuva and more.
Iron and steel based on their significant of iron (the Kursk magnetic anomaly field Urals, West Siberia - more than 80 million tons) and manganese ore and coking coal. Steel melting is about 60 million tonnes, 40 million tons of pig iron. The largest plants are in Magnitogorsk, Chelyabinsk, Nizhny Tagil, Novokuznetsk, Cherepovets, Lipetsk, Krasnoyarsk, Yekaterinburg, Stary Oskol, and others. In general, in Russia there were three steel base, which became the basis of a powerful widely branched Engineering:
Non-ferrous metallurgy based on their holdings of non-ferrous ores and cheap electricity:
EngineeringBased on such a powerful steel base is sufficiently diversified. His company oriented to the production of metal on the availability of skilled labor resources and research capabilities or a consumer of finished products.
Mechanical Engineering, which received significant development in times of royal Russia, traditionally the most powerful in the European part of the country on Urals and Kuzbass.In Russia have developed heavy industry, different transport machinery, electrical, agriculture, instrumentation, electronic industry, space technology. Russia, together with USA is a leader in space exploration. Construction cosmodrome in Plesetsk began in 1957, and Kapustin Yar in - in 1946, it here was running a series of geophysical rockets "Vertical", Artificial satellites of the Earth series "Cosmos" and Indian artificial satellites "Ariabhata" and "Bhaskara", etc.. Heavy machinery is focused on steel base and the largest development gained in the Urals (Orsk, Ekaterinburg), in Central Russia (Belgorod), in Siberia (Krasnoyarsk, Irkutsk, Chita). The most advanced engineering industry is the production of various transport vehicles: passenger cars - Moscow, Togliatti, Nizhny Novgorod, Kaliningrad, the truck - Naberezhnye Chelny, Ulyanovsk, airplanes - Samara, Ulan-Ude, Komsomolsk-on-Amur, Ulyanovsk (OAO "Tupolev", Plant "Aviastar"), Moscow (KB Ilyushin), Voronezh, Omsk, equipment for Railway - Kolomna (diesel), Bryansk (diesel machines), Tver, Nizhny Tagil (wagon), Novocherkassk (electric) sea
Enterprise producing airplanes, "Il." Russia
Military-industrial complex belongs to the medium machine-building and is based in the Urals and Central Russia.
In the presence of highly qualified personnel and scientific base oriented electrical engineering, radio engineering, electronics and manufacture of computers, robotics, biotechnology. These production are located in Central Russia - Moscow, St. Petersburg, in the Urals - Ekaterinburg in Siberia - Novosibirsk.
The major areas of chemical and petrochemical industry (Plastics, fertilizers, chemical fibers, tire covers, etc.).: Central, North West, Volga and Ural. Changing technology in the chemical industry contributed to the shift in allocation production, for example, if the first company to produce natural rubber were "tied" to the potato growing areas (Yaroslav, Efremov, Voronezh), then later they were oriented more cheap raw materials - oil (Togliatti, Sterlitamak, Omsk).
About 65% of the country located in the area of
Developed construction materials, light industry (mainly textiles) and the food industry. In flax, the enterprise textile use brought raw material and synthetic fiber powerful chemistry of polymers. Production of shoes knitwear, clothing manufacture (Ivanovo, Moscow, Yaroslavl, Vologda, Orekhovo-Zuev, Tver, Barnaul, Biysk, Krasnoyarsk, Irkutsk), and others. In Yakutia diamond deposits are developed
Agriculture Russia clearly has a zonal specialization. Over 60% of gross agricultural production makes animal husbandry, agriculture accounts for about 40%. In the structure of livestock dominated by dairy and meat and dairy cattle (steppe zone) and m'yasoshersne sheep (southern steppe, mountain areas), dissolved horses (tabunne maintenance in Buryatia, Yakutia in the south and on the basis of stud to stud), pigs, poultry and so on. In the tundra breeding deer in the Altai - Maral and goats in the mountains of Tuva and Buryatia - yaks.
Agricultural land consists of arable land, hayfields and pastures. More than 4 / 5 of arable land accounts for Central and Central Black Earth areas in the Volga region, Northern Caucasus, the Urals and Western Siberia.
Main crops: Grain (Rye, oats, barley, wheat), sugar beets, sunflowers, potatoes, soybeans, mustard, tobacco, shag. Nechernozemna zone of Central Russia is the world's largest array of grow flax. The main areas processing: Wheat - Volga, Northern Caucasus, Western Siberia, the Urals and Central Black Earth region, sunflower - the North Caucasus, Volga and Central Black Earth region, sugar beet - the Central Black Earth District and the North Caucasus. Almost universally cultivated potatoes. Vegetable prevails in the suburban areas and the North Caucasus. In addition, the North Caucasus, the lower reaches of the Don, Lower Volga Krasnodar region specializing in horticulture, viticulture, melons. Far East is a traditional area of
Share of irrigated land - 4%, mainly the North Caucasus and Volga. Specialization has led to the development of agriculture food: meat, dairy and oil and fat, milk and dairy, confectionery and bakery, sugar, alcohol and brewing.
Transportation. Significant development has received all kinds of land, water and air transport.
Leading role in transporting goods and passengers is rail transport. The length of railways 152, road - 949 (paved - 725), pipelines - 206, inland roads - 101 km. European part of the country has radial picture rail network and roads in the Asian part this picture is clearly linear latitudinal direction. Major units avtospoluchen: Moscow, St. Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Khabarovsk, Adler, Mineral Water. Powerful streams of transport links directed from Center of the Urals, the Caucasus and Siberia. Automotive network is almost completely absent in the northern part of Asian countries.
The river system is a powerful integrated network of channels in the European part of Russia. The major water line here is Volga. Internal waterway transport timber, ore, coal, grain, construction materials and so on. The largest water system: White Sea-Baltic Canal, feed them. Moscow, Volga-Don Canal, Volga-Baltic water way. Tonnage sea trade fleet is about 10 million tons. Major seaports: St. Petersburg, Busan, Novorossiysk, Murmansk, Kaliningrad, Nakhodka.
Pipelines used to transport the condensate, gas, liquid petroleum gas, crude oil, refined products, and water.
Foreign economic relations
The basis of Russia's exports is oil and oil products, natural gas, wood and wood products, metals, chemicals industry. The main trade partners are the Netherlands, Italy, Germany, Turkey, Belarus, Ukraine, China.
Russia imports vehicles, machinery, plastics, medical equipment and pharmaceutical products, iron and steel products consumer goods, meat, fruits and nuts, etc.. These goods are imported from Germany, China, Ukraine, Japan, USA, Belarus, South Korea Italy.
In Russia, more than 100 resorts. All-importance resorts on the Black Sea coast of Caucasus (Sochi, Gelendzhik, Tuapse, etc..) group of resorts of Caucasian Mineral Waters (Yessentuki, Zheleznovodsk, Pyatigorsk, Kislovodsk, where there are more than 130 sources, and stocks mud).
Glossary of Terms and Concepts
Elektrometallurgiya, Metallurgy that covers the processes of obtaining and refining of metals and alloys by electric current. There are methods of electro: melting of steel in electric furnaces and electrochemical: obtaining electrolytic aluminum. The so-called spetselektrometallurgii include different types of rafinuyuchyh pereplavok (electron beam, electroslag, etc.)..
Powder metallurgy, Production metal powders and products from them, their mixtures and compositions of nonmetals. Powders produced by mechanical grinding or spray liquid source metal, electrolysis, high temperature restoration and other methods. Products obtained by pressing with followed by or simultaneously thermal, thermal processing without fusion of the main component. By powder metallurgy allow to manufacture products from materials which are acquiring other ways not possible or economically inefficient. For example, metals that not splavlyayutsya, compositions of metals with nonmetals With Powder are refractory metals and hard materials and alloys, porous, friction and other materials and products from them.
General characteristics of Ukraine's neighboring countries.