§ 31. Slovakia.
Population:5 463 000 (2010)
Official nameSlovak Republic
Political System: Republic
Legislature: National Council
Administrative structure: Unitary country (8 regions)
Common religion: Christianity (Roman Catholic)
Member UN Force (2004), EU (2004)
National Holiday: Day creation of the Slovak Republic (January 1) anniversary of the Slovak National Uprising (29 August), Day Constitution (September 1)
EGP and natural resources potential. Slovakia - vnutrishnokontynentalna typical Central European countries that do not proceed to sea. Land boundaries it has with Ukraine, Poland, Czech Republic, Austria and Hungary. Mostly mountainous country, most of whose territory is situated within the Western Carpathians (Herlahovski Shtit-in array of the High Tatras height 2655 m). In the southwest and east Piddunayska Potiska country and lowlands that are suitable for processing fertile land.
Climate - Moderately continental. Winter - moderately Cold and dry: -1 - 30C to 120C-plains to the mountains, summer is warm and wet: 19 - 210 to 80S. Precipitation - 500-700 mm a year in the mountains to 1000 mm, there is snow for 120 days, which promotes the development of mountain tourism.
In the southwestern part of Slovakia, the Danube flows. Third Slovakia - a mountain areas covered with deciduous and mixed (on the southern slopes) and coniferous (on the northern slopes) forests. Nadra country rich in coal and lignite, is oil and natural gas deposits of iron ore, copper, manganese ore, magnesite, mineral source.
Population. National composition of population relatively homogeneous. Most of the population are Slovaks - 84%; Hungarians - 11%, there are Czechs, Roma, Ukrainian, Polish, Jews and other nations. The official language is Slovak language, which belongs to the Slavic group of Indo-European language family. Also as a spoken used by Czech, Hungarian, Ukrainian and Polish language. Majority population professes the Christian religion: Catholics, Lutherans, Calvinists, Orthodox.
The population in the country increased very slowly through low natural growth, the most populated areas of the country is flat, The average population density is 110 people. per km2. About 60% population lives in cities, the largest of these is Bratislava, Kosice, Nitra, Pre
Bratislava, the capital of the state and the port on the Danube, a considerable cultural and Research Center. Archaeological excavations show signs of living here Celts back in the second - and art. BC In the I century. BC this place was founded the Roman settlement.
Work in the city international airport, machine building, chemical, petrochemical, textile, garment, printing, food industries.
Kosice, the second largest city in Slovakia on the river Horn
The first written mention of the town common in 1230 is the first city Europe got its own coat of arms. In 1657 there was established University. Zzberehlysya unique architectural monuments: one of beautiful Gothic cathedrals of the world - St. Alzhbety (1378 and 1508), Museum Eastern Slovakia - a magnificent building in the style Neorenaissance (1899).
Kosice - large industrial and transport center of the country, there developed metallurgy, heavy engineering, food processing, woodworking industry, working airport.
Kosice - the center of various cultural, social and sports events: "Musical Spring" festival "Summer Arts" and spiritual music competition water skiing, wine festival and others.
Economy. Slovakia has made significant economic reforms in recent years. Reformed taxation, the health health, pension and social security. Economic Reforms positively influenced the movement of foreign investments into the country, in addition provides financial assistance from the IMF.
Slovakia - industrial-agricultural country GDP capita which is 16 110 $. 4% of the working population engaged in agriculture, 39% - in industry and 57% in services. The main wealth of the country are coal, wood and rekreatsiynы resources. The composition of GDP agriculture gives 2.6 %, Industry - 33.4%, services - 64%.
Industry. Traditional industries country is wood, textile and food (meat, milk, wineries, breweries). A good level of development are also black and non-ferrous metallurgy, oil refining, petrochemicals, chemicals, forest products industry ...
Major industrial enterprises are the chemical plant "Shala" "Slovnaft" chemical plants in Bratislava, Heavy Machine Building Plant in Martin and Dubnica nad Vahom, aluminum plant in Zh'yari nad Hronom. In addition, large industrial centers of the country is Kosice, Fire, Humenne and others. On the river weights constructed cascade Hydropower.
Agriculture. In agriculture dominated by agriculture. Cultivated lands make up 30% country's total area. Cultivated grains, sugar beets, potatoes, flax, tobacco. Developed vegetable growing, horticulture, viticulture.
Stockbreeding is mainly meat and dairy character, well bred poultry. In the mountains fed sheep and goats.
Transportation. There were developed almost all kinds transport than the sea. Rail, road and pipelines are also national, and even transit value. Developed navigation on the Danube. Main ports: Bratislava and Komarno. In the capital, international airport.
Foreign economic relations. Slovakia exports vehicles, machinery and electrical equipment, base metals, chemicals, minerals, plastics, products wood processing and agriculture. The main consumers Slovak exports are Germany, Czech Republic, France, Italy, Poland, Hungary, Austria, United Kingdom.
Import Machinery and transport equipment, intermediate manufactured goods, fuels, chemicals, industrial products consumer goods from Germany, Cheshiyi, Russia, Hungary, Austria, Poland, South Korea.
Recreational country's resources is the basis for development tourism industry. Far beyond Slovakia's famous mountain resort in High Tatras: Shtrebsko Pleso, Slovak attract tourists caves, medieval castles Zvolen, Orava, Strechno, Trencin.
Glossary of Terms and Concepts
IMF(IMF), specialized UN agencies, established in 1944 to organize the exchange of financial relations between countries, maintaining exchange rates and the provision of credit help to equalize the balance of payments .. Headquarters organization located in Washington. Members - 183 State (2001). Capital IMF consists of contributions of member countries. Since the 1980s, loans mainly coming Member States fund. IMF arranges regular meetings to discuss problems of the world economy, prepares financial programs to stabilize a crisis and transition economies.