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§ 1. What and how to study the socio-economic geography of the world. (textbook)



§ 1. What and as studying social and economic geography of the world

1.    Remember course of grade 9, which is the subject of study of economic and social geography Ukraine.

2.    What are you known methods of geographical research?

3.     What information sources you used, learning geography?


SUBJECT OF SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY OF THE WORLD. Each science is a subject of research. The subject of study of social and economic geography of the world are patterns of development and population distribution, and economy in the world in general and in specific regions and countries.

The primary original bricks Science is a concept with which science is built interconnected system. As in Physics is the basic concept of the atom in chemistry - molecule, and in biology - cell both in geography is the main concept of territory. Territory - A limited portion of the Earth's surface with its characteristic her natural and man-made (anthropogenic) features and resources, which features a square geographical location and other characteristics. Territory is part of the geographical space (geospace), Which covers all areas of the earth (Summer-, hydro-, atmo-And biosphere), unity and relationship which found in geographic shell. The important components geospaceis aquatorium (Areas of water surface) airspace and subsoilWhich together form geographic space.

In socio-economic geography, which is part of geography,  term "territorial" is used for definition of all that is concerned with a particular territory, as a synonym for the word "Spatial". From this notion originated such as the territorial division of labor complex territorial, territorial institutions. Socio-economic geography of the world covers a wide range of spatial aspects of development society, global economy, the interaction of man and nature in different regions of the world. Thus, its main concept is territorial (geospatial) Organization society or parts thereof (population, industrial and social areas of productive forces). Territorial organization of society appears:

1) by placing objects on the Earth surface (a separate municipality, country, region);

2) spatial relations between objects (such as transport, the movement of people, energy, information);

3) territorial formations (the economic region, economic unit, the system moving, etc.);

4) Operation  territorial units of time (change their due to interaction with the natural and social environment as a result of management).

So, in other words can say that subject to socio-economic World Geography is the territorial organization of society and economy.

Basic forms of territorial organization of society - state (Country) super association (Political blocs and groups of such NATO - Block of Western Europe and North America). The main form of business and economic organization is national Industry (National range), and наднаціональногосподарськоюeconomic blocks of (Eg European Union). Most same form - it World Economy in general. On national level such forms are Economic Zone, Economic Region(Region).

Therefore, socio-economic geography arming the world knowledge about the specific forms of territorial organization Society: areas, zones, countries, their association of the world economy, peculiarities of its spatial structure of global economic, social, political, cultural and other ties and problems. This knowledge is essential to man, to meet their needs and demands of society in the most important - in raw materials, fuel, energy, food, construction materials, marketing goods in the transport, culture, etc..

Socio-economic geography of the world - a complex system of knowledge covering numerous scientific field and sub-sectors that are closely intertwined and interact with each other (Fig. 1). In our actively developing sectors such as cultural geography, geography of religion, etnoheohrafiya, the geography of elections, the geography of the oceans.



Structure socio-economic World Geography


What is the name of science?

On Science, which concluded on the basis of school geography course, studied in Grade 10, used several names. Scientists believe that the best, comprehensive name is social geographyBy analogy to the physical (natural) geography, which together form a single geography (there is, so to speak, filling the earth's reality - the geographical shell). The main person in society is - in the crown of nature and society, because this knowledge can be called and geography human or the Greek system - antropoheohrafiyeyu. Names are socio-economic geography and economic and social Geography that are synonymous, according to scientists is somewhat limited, and later, scientists believe, rule name "antropoheohrafiya».


METHODS economic-geographical researches. From previous geography course you already know about the main methods of geographical research - expeditionary, descriptive, comparative, mapping, modeling. As socio-economic geography of the world has the closest ties with physical geography, that gives it information about natural resources, particularly natural environment and natural geographical division of territory, it successfully applies the methods listed.

However, socio-economic geography of the world uses knowledge about costs, prices, to justify the economic laws of production areas is closely related to the economy. Because it uses and economic means (By accounts, balance, etc.). In addition, socio-economic geography of the world combined and elements of a sociology that studies the human community and the people (family, working group, ethnicity, etc.) in their various relations, so widely applied sociological Methods (Polls, surveys, statistical sampling). Statistics arming socio-economic geography of the world statistical (quantitative) methods, by which reveal certain patterns.

Today, almost all Science matematyzuyutsya, that resort to Mathematical Methods (Mathematical logic theory Probability etc.). Based on methods of logic, the notion of form and content, quality and quantity, and a part of that is a philosophical category, exploring phenomena, properties and processes in space.

At the present stage when the computer  Technology is rapidly apply in all areas of life, can not do without them and the economic and geographic research. Through the combination of computer technology, mapping and statistical methods and spatial simulation created Geographic Information Systems (GIS) By which acquire, preserve, analyze and graphically simulating spatial data for geographic features and phenomenon (Fig. 3). Applying GIS technologyAs educational and informative method of transmitting space-time analysis and get answers to several questions: what is contained in a particular area, where the specific object that changes have occurred in any area, from some time spatial structures that are to be held in the event of certain changes. In addition, GIS have a clear practical orientation. On the basis organize the functioning of transport networks and life support systems, rationalize nature, plan to travel, spend search and rescue and military operations and more.

So, having close relationship with those already sciences, as well as demographic, political science and geopolitics, applying their research methods socio-economic geography of the world adequately reflects the processes, properties and attitude by a country and the world. Without this knowledge can not implement territorial development planning and placement facilities in the country, prepare a master plan of the city, improve network territorial-administrative division of territory, and organize a comprehensive health Nature. Socio-economic geography of the world expands and deepens knowledge of around the world as a complex social, economic, political, cultural and environmental system. It helps determine Ukraine's place and his own in this Diverse World.



Socio-economic relations world geography to other sciences and its research methods


SOURCES geographical knowledge. Amount geographic information accumulated by mankind, is huge. It's not possible collect in one book or website. To achieve desired results in the study of socio-economic geography of the world, you use various information resources. As you already know the source geographical knowledge into several groups (Fig. 4), each of which has its advantages.

Scientific edition - The most detailed work covering the analysis of results Studies of geographic processes and phenomena at the global and regional levels. Featured Research literature presents geographic knowledge in an accessible form to the general reader. In reference Media (Handbooks, dictionaries, encyclopedias) can find statistics, brief historical and other information about geographic features.

Educational literature - textbooks and manuals - a signpost in the information sea guide to action during the search for answers to questions that arise in process of studying geography. Clearly, however, that no textbook does not have time to reflect changes that occur quickly and not able to answer all questions. So it's important to contact periodicals (Newspapers, specialized journals) containing the operational and geographic information can be both scientific and scientific and popular. Popular carriers were Television and radio: Many specialized channels and programs covering the planet, travel through countries and continents.

Please, your companions Training should be mapsContaining the spatial characteristics of objects. Feature works are at home and school libraries, expand your knowledge of geographical phenomena on different corners of our planet.



Sources of geographic information

Now Change traditional paper-based information coming electronic and Internet considerably extend the knowledge of the world, supplementing his visual and audio series. But this requires a personal computer connected the World Wide Web or other technical equipment.

What you choose to supplement their knowledge - the right of personal preferences and capabilities. Remember the main thing: the more additional sources of interest to you, the more will become more understandable intricacies of the modern world. Working with diverse sources of knowledge will help expand your outlook, culture and thinking, develop skills of independent creative work, which in future will be needed in any field.

The importance of geography

«Ukrainian youth have the latest ZemleznanieThat teaches explore and discover all the land and every piece of it as a living piece of nature and of man and his deeds on earth - as plot vsezemnoho life. Geography requires each its modern citizen, he or teacher or engineer, administrator or shopkeeper, soldier or diplomat.

Stephen Rudnitsky, 1923 р.



Questions and Tasks

1.    What is the subject of socio-economic geography of the world?

2.    Explain why it appears in the territorial organization of society.

3.    Using Fig. 1, tell us about the industry structure socio-economic geography of the world.

4.    How interrelated physical and socio-economic geography of the world? What you know zahalnoheohrafichniresearch methods?

5.    What economic and social uses methods socio-economic geography of the world?

6.    What sources of geographic information you use, to see what GIS?