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§ 27. Protection of surface and subsoil of the Earth (textbook)

§ 27. Protection Surface and Deep Earth


Remember how one can change the surface plains and mountains.


Impact man on the Earth's surface. Earth's surface and subsoil and changes a person uses for their needs from time immemorial. It interprets the land, building various facilities, extraction of minerals. This leads to the destruction of not only the earth's crust, and and destruction of soil, vegetation, wildlife, air and water pollution.

By minerals all man penetrates deeper in the earth crust. Ground huge cut quarries, drilled deep wells and mines. Holes and underground cavity violate the balance in layers of rocks. The result is cracks, landslides, subsidence and surface destruction of buildings on it. Around the mine waste dumps are created - piles - artificial embankments on earth's surface. They occupy large areas of fertile land and make it impossible their agricultural use. For example, in UkraineIn Krivorozhskom BasinWhere more than 20 mines producing iron ore, subsidence covered Over 16 km2 area.

Impact Constructionon the surface of the most notable in large cities. There a person changes the natural relief. Beams ravines and fall asleep at other sites namyvayut sand layer of 5-10 m of the future building. Cluster buildings give the surface rocks and seals leading to its sinking. Thus, under city Mexico (Mexico) sector fall by 30 cm per year. This greatly exceeds dimensions of natural vibrational motions of the crust.

Agriculture also significantly affects the Earth's surface as covering large areas. In Ukraine, this effect particularly significant because under the Agricultural lands occupy over 70% areas and agricultural sphere - more than 50%. Excessive plowing land leads to of ravines.

Active Human activities necessitates the protection of surface and subsoil Earth.

Ways to prevent a negative impact on the Earth surface.To minimize the loss to the environment of mining, to remove the most complete of all useful materials already extracted. It provide a more desired substances and reduce waste piles unnecessary.

For restoration of lands affected by quarries and waste dumps, transmitting special works - recultivation. To do this heaps leveling, top soil and heap trees and impose bushes. Career turned into ponds, the banks which create zones rest.

That the negative impact of agriculture on the surface, you need to carefully maintain its cultivation. Growth ravines stop spreading plants on their slopes.

Public relief.Health involves keeping the surface of destruction of unique forms of relief. The word "unique" means rare, exceptional, one of a kind. Particular objects may be separate mountains, picturesque rocks, weird inselbergs stone, caves, outcrops, the location of fossils and more. They need protection, because after the destruction will immediately restore them impossible. To create their conservation Nature territory (Reserves, geological reserves, national parks), and some Objects announce natural monuments.

Unique object, known worldwide, is Grand Canyon in the U.S.. This giant gorge in the rocks of Colorado Plateau River produced the same name. Canyon has a steep, nearly vertical wall. They are clearly visible strata of rocks that Ledges are different shapes. Colorado Canyon is part of - National Park.

In Ukraine have many unique items. Yes Karadag ReserveThat Southern coast of Crimea, known geological museum in the open. There, protected mountain range Karadag (Black Mountain). He is an extinct volcano in the Jurassic period (million years ago). On the slopes is clearly visible lateral craters and frozen lava flows. Among magmatic and sedimentary rocks occur semipreciousminerals: rock crystal, amethyst, onyx, cornelian, jasper. Spectacular Karadag make steep rocky peaks and cliffs that break to the sea. With water acting boulders Golden Gate, Elephant, Sail et al.

Geological reserve Mountain Ayudah (Bear Mountain) is also located in the Crimea. Near is well-known international children's recreation center "Artek". Gore has shaped shape and its shape resembles the shoe bears drink water from the sea. Ayudah - This "volcano that has not occurred: magma was not able to escape to the surface and stark in rock mass.

Memorial Nature announced sugar loaf Dzhau-Tepe - Large mud Volcano height of 122 m above sea level, which on the Kerch Peninsula. A kind of attraction is Druzhkivs'ka skamyanili tree in the Donetsk region. About 20 million Araucaria trunks years ago have been entered sands desolate for a reward and survived to this day.

To protection subject and caves. Many of their tail. There is the world's largest gypsum cave in - OptimisticThe total length of underground labyrinths which is 201 km. Crimea is the most Red Cave (Kizil-Koba) - almost 14 km.

So protected unique, the most important parts inanimate nature to preserve their for future generations.



Fig. Great Canyon (USA)




Fig. Rock Golden Gate on Karadag (Ukraine, Crimea)


FAQ task

1. What turns negative human impact on Earth's surface and natural resources?

2. How to reduce negative human impact on the bowels?

3. What is called reclamation?

4. How can the unique landforms?

5. Do your community a unique form of surface? If so, describe them.