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§ 39. Air Protection (textbook)

§ 39. Protection atmosphere


Can one influence on the atmosphere?

As a result, polluted air?


Impact rights in the atmosphere. Man in the activity can alter the composition and properties of the atmosphere. Recently, the air contains a large amount of harmful gases. They fall into the atmosphere from industrial pipes. Strongly poison the air exhaust numerous cars.

If these gases accumulate in the air and mixed with Drop fog then formed smog(Translated from English - "the smoke, haze). Spreads like a venomous fog on the ground level of human respiratory tract, which is especially dangerous. Most often smog occurs in large cities.

Very dangerous air pollution sulfur and nitrogen. Combining with water vapor, they return to earth in the form acid rain. These rains fall sometimes thousands of kilometers from their formation. They harm health People are losing forests, polluting the soil. Some scientists believe that increasing chemical pollution destroys a thin ozone layer. It formed a sort of "hole". Most ozone "Hole" discovered over Antarctica. This is dangerous for all life on Earth.

Yes, people burned their needs millions of tons different fuels. Thus the atmosphere produces carbon dioxide. His number increases. And he starts to act as a hotbed: the Earth miss rays, which heats the surface and the heat from the earth's surface - "not produces "  preventing it dispersion in space. This leads to a rise in temperature troposphere. Such a phenomenon scientists call greenhouse effect. It is suspected that due to the greenhouse effect the average temperature troposphere air will increase by 10 around the globe. This deviation called global warming. But even such seemingly innocuous warming may have significant consequences. First, increased melting of glaciers. This will boost World Ocean. Then  coastal lowlands where people live, will be inundated.

Smog, acid rain, ozone holes, greenhouse effect and global warming - these are only some examples of "response" of the atmosphere the actions of people. Now they have increased the scale so that the atmosphere already needs protection of rights.


Fig. Smog over San Diego. U.S.


Fig. Air pollution emissions of industrial enterprises


Air Protection. Clean air - A vital necessity of man. To maintain the purity of the air limit emissions of harmful gases, smoke and other contaminants. For this to industrial enterprises set Gas- and dymovlovlyuvachi. In cities where the accumulated transport, expand green space plantations. Trees not only powerful producers of oxygenBut much reduce the dust content of air. 1 ha of forest for one hour consumes 2 kg carbon dioxide. The forests of dust in 8.10 times less than in treeless areas.

Solving the problems of the atmosphere requires joint efforts by all countries. Because polluted air, moving, not pay attention to national borders. People always need to remember that the atmosphere - enormous value of our planet.


Questions and Tasks

1. Why in the atmosphere increases the content of carbon gas?

2. Why the state of the atmosphere on the health of people?

3. What do you want to store air Clothing "Earth from pollution?

4. What in nature must adapt to climate change area?





Theme 3. Hydrosphere


1. Remember, in which states can stay on water Earth.

2. How does the water cycle on our planet?


On Earth is no such place where there was no water at all. Our entire planet is saturated with and covered it. Most liquid water. Far less solid (ice and snow) and gaseous (water vapor). All water contained in the earth's crust, its surface and atmosphere, forms one of the terrestrial environments - hydrosphere. Her parts - Oceans, water, land, water in the atmosphere. Most water concentrated in the oceans and seas (96,5%). Water is the land - rivers, lakes, marshes, artificial ponds, glaciers and underground water. In the atmosphere contained water vapor, water droplets and ice crystals. Because water is easily moves from one state to another and continuously moves, all parts hydrosphere mutually linked. Spreading the planet and penetrating into the membrane of all, Water combination between them themselves.

Water plays a crucial role in nature and life. She possesses amazing properties. Many of them are of great geographical importance. Some properties you have already learned: the ability to dissolve, wash and transfer away substances break down and create a new surface, and heat cool air. In the universe there is no other substance that could replace water. As a result of water draws a unique portrait of our planet.










> Text Box: Моря

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Text Box: Океани







Fig. Parts of the hydrosphere