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§ 44. The riches of the oceans (textbook)

§ 44. Wealth World Ocean


1. Give examples of marine plants and animals.

2. What wealth is in the Pacific Ocean?


Biological Resources. Since immemorial times a person gets for their needs from the seas and oceans of seaweed catches fish, mollusks, animals. This is called biological Resources. Much of biological resources falls on the fish. Annually catch millions of tons of herring, anchovies, cod, mackerel, tuna, horse mackerel, flounder, salmon. Among the most value are clams oysters mussels, scallops, squid and octopus. Also produces shrimp crabs, lobsters bisque. The harvesting of whales, walruses, seals, fur seals currently limited due to the significant reduction in their number. 

Vegetation and fauna of the oceans is rich, but its biological resources are not unlimited. For example, because fish caught more than it can reproduce, the amount very quickly decreases. This means that marine organisms need to protect from predatory fishery and loss of water pollution. 


Interesting geography

From the ocean - in space

Microscopic kelp hlorera - Record of Reproduction: 1 kg for 17 days they give tons of biomass. At night algae secrete oxygen is 200 times more than its own volume. For such unusual quality hlorera became the first plant, flew with astronauts into space.


Mineral resources. Mineral resources of the oceans - is not only minerals that are deposited on the bottom and under the bottom, but water itself. There are many dissolved substances, which are widely person uses. In sea water is everything - from salt to gold. For this It's called a rare ore. Every year the waters of the oceans gives a person all more and more useful substances. Most of it get salt. Water also provides magnesium, which is used in aircraftand automotive, bromine, which is necessary for the production of film and photo paper. Gold in ocean water contains very little: 2 000 tons of water containing only 1 gram of gold. But it thus does not produce, because the cost appear to be many times greater than the value of the gold.

In "Thirsty areas - the arid areas of Asia - salt water seas by Desalination plant to make fresh. However, the cost of such water so as far too high.

Huge reserves of various minerals just scattered on the seabed and ocean. Bottom lined with iron and manganese ores. Their reserves exceed the reserves of land. From under the bottom of the extracted oil, natural gas and coal. Their developed using underwater mines and drilling platforms.


Fig. The oil platform in the North Sea


Energy resources. Ocean Water can generate electricity. Huge energy resources are hot flashes and ebb, flow and even ocean waves. Energy and ebb tides in several times higher than in all the rivers of the planet. However, until that person use it enough. To do this, in some countries (France, U.S., Russia, Japan, China) Tidal power station was built. Electricity get through the waves in Japan. However, its value is high enough. If people learn to get on the wave power station cheap way, humanity will receive an inexhaustible source of energy.

Man and Ocean.Sea depth has long attracted people. She wanted not only to find treasures in days, and also expand the geographic knowledge about the world. Now is not doubt that heWorld Ocean by ol our planet is very significant. His called the "cradle of life" as Mr.and most scientists believe life on Earth born exactly in the ocean. "Kitchen Weather it is called for a major role in shaping Earth's climate.

If on land long ago, there was no unknown areas, in the depths of the ocean and now many mysterious. The first researchers, plunged under water by divers were pearls. It took a long time before there were various submersibles, research vessels, artificial satellites. Today, with their help scientists study the properties of water, its movements marine organisms, measured depth. It is important for navigation, a search of minerals, fisheries, laying down cables telephone service.

Now ocean must protect of pollution oil, industrial Waste Management, household waste waters fertilizers, laid з fields. Today even far of coastIn open OceanNot rarely swim Plastic bottle, Polyethylene Packages and Other garbage. Of pollution water suffering all organisms. That draw attention to these problems, 1998 was proclaimed the International Year of the Ocean. Fighting pollution is difficult. It is therefore important not to allow this to boundless body of water not only remained storeroom of natural resources and human aesthetic dostavlyav Enjoy.


Interesting geography

Marine Animals in danger

Some animals that had recently lived in the ocean, already disappeared forever. For example, was completely cut off like a seal sea cow. In the twentieth century. sharply reduced the number of blue whales: from 150 000 individuals Less than 2000.  Now these animals protected.


FAQ task

1. What kinds of natural resources has Oceans?

2. What biological resources  Ocean uses one for their needs?

3. What mineral wealth keep the seas and oceans?

4. How can I use energy water oceans?

5. As a result, polluted waters of the seas and oceans?

6. What should take measures to prevent pollution of the ocean?