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§ 52. Distribution Plants Animals (textbook)

§ 52. Spread Plants and Animals


Remember What are the conditions necessary for the life of plants.


Plants and Animals land. In biosphere dominated by animals - their 1.5 million species while only 0,5 million plants and most plants and animals concentrated on land. On dry land, their distribution depends on climate, because of their species decreases from the equator to the poles.

Most is varied flora and fauna in equatorial latitudes. The climate there is hot and humid throughout the year. It promotes lush growth of plants that form a magnificent forests. A tree in the equatorial forest so much that they create multiple tiers, and their crown zmykayutsya in solid green tent. Trunks and branches shrouded flexible lianas and covered by plants that absorb moisture directly from the air. Most animals living in the crowns of trees. Among they have a lot of monkeys. With predators as leopards and tigers are deer, wild pigs, porcupine. Among the birds - parrots, peacocks, hummingbirds, toucans, wild chickens. Forest filled with bats, lizards, snakes. A large number of insects - bright butterflies, beetles, ants.

У Tropical latitudes, where the climate is hot and dry, warm enough, but plants lacking moisture. Because plants form a very loose cover. To such conditions adapted such prickly shrubs with very small leaves the evaporation of moisture at least. Camel thorn has tailed roots to reach water at depth. Wildlife poor. Animals also adapted to these adverse conditions. A camel can cost a long time without water and eat spines. Antelopes are able to find water and food deal vast distances. Snakes and lizards from the heat dug into the sand.

Уtemperate latitudes, where winters are cold, summers are warm and rainfall is sufficient growing forests. Coniferous forests form a pine, fir, larch. Wide-Trees woods - oak, beech, hornbeam, linden - shed leaves in winter. In the woods live brown bear, lynx, wolf, fox, rabbit, squirrel, elk, wild boar. Many birds. In southern temperate zone, where rainfall is less rule grassy vegetation (sagebrush, feather grass, typchak). Fauna is represented mainly rodents: jerboa, gopher, marmot. Meets  fox. Common prairie adder snake. Many birds - the eagle, bustard, partridge, quail, lark.

В Arctic latitudes throughout the year to low temperature. Therefore, poor vegetation: mosses, lichens, chaharnychky (cranberries, blueberries, cloudberry). Wildlife as well poor. There are found polar bear, reindeer, lemming, polar fox. In Antarctic penguins live on the coasts. And in the center, the ice cover generally no plants or animals.



Fig. Animals land


Plants and Animals Ocean. Conditions for the existence of organisms in the ocean other than on land. Therefore, and other organisms. Some of them are microscopic bacteria, and tiny plants and animals, which are placed in a liter of water millions. And there are real giants - algae and 60 m long whale weighing tens of tons.

By realities for sea creatures are divided into groups. Plankton Greek - "Wandering") - are small plants and animals that live in the upper layers.. They are unable to move independently and moved by waves and currents. This tiny algae, worms, all fours, shrimp, jellyfish. Plankton - the main food of most inhabitants of the ocean, including fish and whales. In some places the ocean plankton is so much that it resembles thick dispersed clouds. This bolder "nutritious smoothie" hang "with different colors and jellyfish form. Such areas are rich in fish. Nekton (In Greek - "Swimming") - marine animals that are actively moving in the water. It whales, dolphins, walruses, seals, octopus, squid, water snakes, turtles and various fish. They are easy to overcome long distances.  Benthos (Greek "depth") - plants and animals who settled on the bottom: algae, corals, sponges, starfish, crabs, worms. Algae into water and get out of it with all their nutrients surface.

All lives accumulated in shallow coastal area, which is well lit and warm sun. There have real underwater "pasture" where many fish and other marine animals. At great depths much poorer life. But desert will not name. There, bacteria, worms, fish that are adapted to life in total darkness under enormous pressure in cold water.

Geo distribution of organisms in the Pacific Ocean caused by the same reasons as for land. Cold polar waters are poor in life. In the waters of moderate latitudes in summer many small organisms that feed on fish, because they are the most fish areas of the ocean. Nearby tropical plants and animals less, because water has increased temperature and salinity - a desert of water districts. In equatorial latitudes of saltwater increases.



Fig. Living Ocean


Human impact on the biosphere. Currently, a person with influence on the biosphere surpassed all natural elements. The flora is undergoing constant negative influence economic activity. Steppes generally plowed under farmland. As a result, many species are disappearing natural vegetation. Excessive increase in livestock leads to destruction grass cover. As a result - cover desert areas. Trees in coniferous and deciduous forests cut down for wood used in construction and industry. Woods vynyschuyutsya and expansion due to land in the field. Destroying vegetation, man destroys habitat many animals.

Negative economic impact of human activities on flora and fauna requires their protection. Protection of plants and animals is to create protected areas where they could be stored all kinds of natural plants and animals.


FAQ task

1. Why animals can not survive without plants?

2.  Why do plants and animals are unevenly placed on land?

3. What is the distribution feature of life in the ocean?

4. Explain the causes of uneven settlement of ocean waters from the equator to the poles.

5. What plants and animals are in your community? As they adapted to environment?