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§ 56. Population. Races (textbook)

§ 56.  Population. Races


1. Remember, where there were ancient Earth civilization.

2. Do you know how many people live in Ukraine?


Number population on Earth. Today on Earth all over the world lives of over 6 billion people. Such huge people can not imagine. If they all align side by side, this rank operezala to Earth along the equator 100 times! The world's largest country by population - China (1,2 billionpeople). Behind it is India (Over 1 billion). In Ukrainelive 46.5 million people.

The population of our planet continuously increases. In the distant past, before our era and the beginning of our own, it grew slowly. The reason is that people strongly dependent on natural conditions, it was hard to deal with epidemics and famine. The rapid growth of population began only in the last 400 years, when the dependence of human Nature has become smaller. By 1900 the population reached 1, 6 billion people. And of the twentieth century. population growth have exploded: in 1975 - 4 billion man in 1987 - 5 billion man in 1999 is 6 billion resident. The main reason for this rapid increase in population was reducing mortality due to development of technology and medicine. Even in less developed countries could overcome many diseases that took one thousand lives.

Scientists predict that in future the number of population increase.  Because humanity important target for development that meet the needs of the global population in food, education and health, environmental quality medium.

Accommodation population. With the growing population it was fast moving terrestrial ball. But people rozselyalysya unevenly. As you know, the first centers of human civilization arose in river valleys or the plains of the favorable climate - in the valleys of the Indus, the Tigris and Euphrates (Sumerian, Assyria, Babylon), Nile (Ancient Egypt), the plains of China.

Now, like many centuries ago, the natural conditions and resources determine the uneven allocation of the population on Earth. About 70% all people living in 7% of the land surface. A 15% land with harsh natural conditions - Antarctica, Greenland and Northern Islands Arctic Ocean - And are still inhabited. Not populated spaces humid equatorial forests, deserts, tundra, taiga, and mountains. The most densely populated plains are temperate, subtropical and subekvatorialnoho zones, coastal seas and oceans. In general, in the Northern Hemisphere There are more people (90%) than in the South.

The average number of inhabitants per 1 km2area reflects the population density. To identify the number of population divided by land area on which it resides. So, if Earth's population is approximately 6 billionpeople and land area - 149 million km2Then population density on the planet will be 40 people per 1 km2.

Population density varies greatly by the mainland and countries. Thus, European and Asia it is almost twice the density world population, but Africa, North and South AmericaOn the contrary - less than half the world. In Asia, in areas prosperous farming population density sometimes reaches 2000 people per 1 km2, and in Europe and North America developed  industrial areas - 1 500 people 1 km2. Lowest population density - in Australia (2 people per 1 km2). In Ukraine it is 78 people per 1 km2.

Human race.Earth populated by people, different in appearance - skin color, hair eyes and face shape. These differences were so long ago, when certain groups people living far from each other. Then the different natural conditions left their impact on different groups of people. As a result of centuries of adaptation to a natural environment they formed various external signs. Since external signs of hereditary transmission from parents to children, from generation to generation, regardless of location. Groups of people with similar external signs are called human races. Scientists ethnographers are three basic human race.

European race - The most numerous. To It includes about 45% of the population. The appearance of this group race is not the same. People who live in northern areas, light emerged skin and blond hair. The people who lived in the southern region, the skin was brown, and hair dark. Representatives from major european races inhabiting way Europe, Part Asia. Many of last century migrated to other continents.


Fig. Representatives of the european race


People Mongoloid race yellowish color, black straight hair, narrow-eyed, vylytsyuvate face. These characteristics result from adaptation to frequent winds and dust storms. In particular, narrow-eyed and prevented dust sand. This race belonged to the people AsiaAnd Indians - the indigenous population America.

Representatives equatorial race have dark brown or black skin, brown eyes, black curly hair. They have thicker lips and a wider nose than people of other races. Accommodation in the equatorial and  tropical zones has led to adjust their body's exposure to strong sun. Because of excess skin in the sun developed a special pigment (dye). From it skin gradually became dark. Rigid and curly hair forms on head like an air cushion - reliable protection against overheating. A thickened lips and wide nostrils facilitate evaporation of water through the mucosa. Main resettlement of peoples equatorial race - Africa and Australia. Many of them live in America, but there are no indigenous inhabitants and descendants negro slaves exported from Africa as early as Hui-XVIIIth.


Fig. Representatives of the Negroid race


Fig. Representative Mongoloid race


Not everyone belongs only to those races. Of Earth's growing population of different races constantly mixed. Because racial distinctions gradually blurred. An example of mixed groups is Metis and mulatto America.


Fig. Map of Races


Equality races. Scientists have proven that the human capacity for intellectual and physical labor, no matter to which race they belong. Any people can successfully develop their culture, science, economy.

Great contribution to the study of equality of races and people made our fellow Nikolai Miklukho-Maklai (1846-1888 gg.) He has dedicated his life to studying peoples inhabit the tropical Pacific islands. While little is known about Aboriginal islands, which had no communication with the outside world and were at low stages development. In 1871 M. Miklukho-Maklai settled in island of New Guinea, Papuan inhabited related to equatorial race. Scientists have lived among them for a long time and has established friendships. Explore Life Papuans, Maklai concluded that the so-called primitive people as mentally capable as any other people on Earth.


Questions and Tasks

1. What is the population of Earth?

2. What causes influence the population?

3. Explain the causes of uneven allocation population on Earth.

4. How to determine population density? Calculate the density of population of the locality.

5. What race is divided into the Earth's population? Name features of each race.

6. Under the influence which various factors formed race?

7. Find out more from other sources of stay M. Miklukho-Maklay in New Guinea and other islands. What is the significance of research scientist?