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§ 58. State of the World (textbook)

§ 58.  State of the World


1. Recall the history that developed countries existed in the past.

2. What does the map?


State on the political map. Each person, wherever they lived and which had not belonged to the people, is a national any country (state). On Earth there are more than 200 countries. They differ an area occupied, population, geographical features position and others.

There are countries giants. They occupy space in several million square kilometers. These are large countries Russia China, India Eurasia U.S. and Canada North America Brazilin South America. However, there are small countries more like the city. They called and respectively - the state-dwarfs. The smallest among them - Vatican. It has an area less than 0,5 km.

Each country is unique in its location space - geography. Australia takes the whole continent. Indonesiaand Japan located only on the islands. Russia Turkeylocated both in Europe and Asia. Some countries have a seaside location and are released into the sea or ocean. Other continents are located deep in and go to the seas denied. Most countries are on friendly plains. But there are others that are high in the mountains. For example, most people Mexico, Afghanistan living at altitudes over 1000 meters above sea level.


Fig. Top state of the world


Of neighbors Ukraine. Ukraine is in Europe, in its south-eastern part. In the south our country by the Black and Azov Seas. In western Ukraine borders Romania, Moldova, Hungary, Slovakia, Poland. In the north of the border is BelarusIn the north and east - Russia. The country covers an area of 603.7 thousand km2 and largest area is the largest in Europe.

Human points. Places of residence of people called settlements. From division of human economic activities on trade and agriculture held and separation of settlements in urban and rural. Cities occurred even in ancient times as the centers of power, trade and craft, both military reinforcement.

Cities - A crowd at a relatively low territory. Living in cities hundreds of thousands of people, and in large cities - million. Great cities of the world is New York, Mexico City, London, Paris, Moscow. The largest city by population Mexico City is - The capital of Mexico, home to about 20 millionpeople. In major cities and is Kyiv, which is inhabited by 2.7 million people. In cities focusing different businesses - factories, transportation. In many cities cultural, educational and scientific establishments: theaters, museums, schools of various types, institutes, universities. Therefore they are called centers of culture, education, science, production. However, heavily polluting the city and changing environment environment. Before city residents remain significant problems of noise pollution air and water transport congestion.


Fig. Paris - tourist Mecca of the world


Despite the rapid growth of cities, more than half Earth's population lives in villages. The population of villages less: in small living tens or hundreds of people and large - thousand. There are those settlements, where only one family. This - hamlets, farms, weather station. Villagers are engaged in cultivation of land (cultivated grain vegetables, fruits) and animal husbandry. From villages to towns vezut food and raw materials for food and textile industries, and from cities in the village - Industrial products.


Fig. Canadian farm


To settlements urban include settlement of mines, large factories. Spa settlement services to visitors during the holidays. There are very small village - summer.


Interesting geography

Australian farms

It is a lonely farm in Australia. Contact neighbors there are often phone or by radio. On the radio Doctor gives advice to the patient. Similarly, the radio is teaching children 15 years of age. For this, each student has a channel through which it may seek assistance from teachers or other students.


As countries indicate on maps. You already know that among the thematic maps distinguish political. They are different colors with the world. Colours selected at random and may vary on different maps. On the path the country signed its name. Small in area States with a digit. When this figure in the legend of the word cards country. Capitals on the map with circles - punsonamy. The boundaries between States of symbols shown as red dotted or continuous line.

On a large scale location plans can depict locations in great detail. They show the main streets, quarters. Under the plan, you can see the location of parks, individual homes, different institutions. In rural areas plotted points, busy towns, gardens. Always shown on the plans of Transport - railways, roads.

Its locality.How well do you know your town or village? Using different sources of knowledge, Describe your locality for such a plan.

1. Name of settlement. Which area and region it belongs?

2. Area, the number of inhabitants.

3. When originated and where it originated there?

4. The closest school to venture (it produces?).

5. Cultural institutions, health, sports.

6. Features home.

7. Types of transport.


Questions and Tasks

1. Describe the geographical position of countries: Russia, China, India, USA, Brazil, Egypt the plan: 1) where is located the mainland and part of it, and 2) whether the output to the sea, and 3) countries with which borders and 4) how to name and where the capital; 5) which is geographical area.

2. Specify which country's largest world island - Greenland.

3. As depicted on the state's political map world?

4. How different in city and village? Which among them there are ties?

5. Tell us about your town.