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NORTH AMERICA. Climate. Geology (compendium)


main factors that determine the specific features of the climate of the continent, there is a significant length of North America from north to south, the plainness of its central regions, and also close to the meridional mountain ranges reach.

continent to great differences of temperature characteristic of its various parts and, as a result - a big difference in atmospheric pressure that causes movement of air masses from the Arctic Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico deep into the mainland.

On the continent was the highest temperature recorded hemisphere 56,7 ° C (Death Valley). The lowest temperature is 70 ° C (Greenland). In winter the central region are often a clash of arctic and tropical air masses, accompanied by considerable variability of weather and sharp fluctuations in temperature.

dominant on the continent is moving west air masses. However, its impact is felt most on windward slopes of the Cordillera. That is down to 3 000 mm (on some sections of the spine - to 6 000 mm) rainfall.

Influence of the Atlantic Ocean on the climate of North America is limited mainly coastal. The cause of this - Mountain system Appalachian Mountains in the east of the mainland.

sea currents have a significant impact on the climate of the coastal areas of North America. Thanks to the warm currents significantly softened Alaska Pacific coast climate temperate. However for those located in the same latitudes east coast of the mainland are characterized by a much stricter climate due to the influence of cold currents Labradorskoyi.

To summarize, that the mainland is very characteristic contrast of temperature conditions prevailing western transfer of air masses in temperate latitudes and the limited impact of coastal oceans.

Natural Area

distribution of natural areas in North America has the features associated with features of relief: the central part of the mainland natural areas have meridional propagation.

for Greenland and the Canadian archipelago of islands that lie in the zone arctic desert , characterized by harsh climatic conditions, very little flora and fauna. The vegetation is represented mainly mosses and lichens , that occur on the ice-free areas of land. Life of the majority of animals ( walrus, seal ) associated with the ocean.

located in the extreme north of the mainland area tundra than moss and lichen grow grass and Trees , and dwarf birch and alder . Such a poor vegetation that covers the tundra marsh soils, yet unpretentious enough for deer caribou and vivtsebyka . There is also polar bears, fox . Further south, in lisotundri Flora filled shrubs with willow and alder , fir and larch , growing in the river valleys.

Zone taiga is characterized by long and harsh winters and short and fairly warm summers. Here in the wetlands and podzolic soils merzlotno-taiga feel comfortable enough some pine and larch , spruce , fir . Varied and the local fauna ( wolf, bear, fox, deer, elk, lynx , etc.).

Zone mixed and broadleaf forests are common in the eastern part of the mainland. Along with conifers are quite widely used deciduous species: oak, beech, linden, aspen, birch , and maple , that due to off-color foliage provides exceptional beauty a local forests.

Forests live deer, porcupine, brown bear and many other representatives of the fauna.


the central part of the continent occupied zone steppe and steppe . A considerable amount of heat, sufficient moisture and fertile soils contributed to the intense economic assimilation prairie (namely the so-called steppe, once here). The brightest representatives of the animal world is bison , previously fed on thousands of fertile lands.

Now these beautiful animals can be found only in reserves. Wildlife here also have rodents (gopher, marmot), reptiles (snake, rattlesnake) and birds (Bald Eagle) .

Zone and semi-desert formed in the interior Cordillera highlands. In poor soils sirozemnyh here grow mainly cacti and some other undemanding plants to moisture. Wildlife submitted reptiles ( rattlesnake ) and various rodents .

more narrow on the Pacific coast zone extends tverdolystyh forests and bushes (Mediterranean) on brown earth which can meet various kinds pines Sequoias and relict species of evergreen oaks .

considerable array of south-eastern mainland area is variable-wet (including monsoon) forest . Characteristic features of this zone is the yellow-and chervonozemni soils with different vegetation ( pine, evergreen oak, magnolia, palm tree ). Wildlife submitted alligators, turtles, snakes fulminating , a large number of birds .

Vysotna explain most clearly seen in the Cordilleras. Set zone changes as the Cordillera from north to south and from west to east, due to length of mountain and through the entire continent significant differences wetting regime of western and eastern slopes of the mountains.