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§ 19. Natural phenomena. Ecological problems (textbook)

§ 19. Natural phenomena. Ekolohichni problems


1. Remember that natural phenomena are called.

2. Why Africa needs of nature?


NATURAL nature. Natural natural disasters (earthquakes, droughts, floods, hurricanes, etc.) can cause great damage to the population. At the dominion of a tropical desert climate in the vast eternal Africa is a disaster droughtbezdoschovyy long period, leading to soil drying and death vegetation. Drought is always accompanied by bad harvest. From lack of forage and drinking water beasts and wild animals, of thirst and hunger die people. The area to frequent and prolonged droughts in a zone Sahel (Translated from Arabic means coast, endIe desert land) located south of the Sahara. It stretches wide strip from west to east across North Africa.

Dangerous phenomenon is hurricane hot dry windThat blows in the desert in summer. Arabs call him the "breath death. When it blows, air temperature rises to 50 0C, relative humidity is reduced sometimes to 0%. Under these conditions, increases sharply evaporation from the body. In humans, severe headache begins and may come death. Often accompanied by hurricane winds sand tornado і dust storms. They usually last long (20 min.), But have great power a short time suffer huge masses of sand, falling asleep fields, houses, and sometimes a large settlement. Some countries Africa suffer from floods. A kind of natural disaster is invasions locusts, a few hours can destroy the entire crop fields and plantations.

Interesting geography

Constant satellites Sahara

On the boundless Spaces Sahara constantly blowing wind that carries a huge amount of dust. Different parts of Africa it is called differently: sirroko, sandstorm, khamsin, harmatan, shahali. Arabic proverb says: "In the Sahara wind rises and falls with Sun. Thanks to him, dust storms - constant companions desert.


ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS. Even a century ago imagined mainland Africa unspoilt nature. Yet by nature and then was changed business human activities. At the beginning of XXI century. environmental problems are emerging during predatory marches European colonizers, aggravated.

Equator evergreen Forests ages were cut down for mahogany. They also vykorchovuvalysya and vypalyuvalysya in fields and pastures. Burning plants in agriculture pidsichno flame leads to disruption of natural vegetation cover and soil degradation. The rapid depletion of its  been forced to leave in 2-3 years Cultivated land and rozkorchovuvaty new areas. Today about 70% of forests Africa destroyed and their remnants continue to rapidly disappear. In place of the plantation forests have cocoa oil palm, Banana peanuts. Deforestation leads to many negative consequences: increased number of floods, increased droughts, landslides of soil, reducing soil fertility. Playing the same forest is very slow.

Significantly changed the nature and savannas. Huge areas where plowed occupation pastures. Due to excessive grazing cattle, sheep and camels, Felling trees and shrub savannas increasingly turned to desert. Especially negative consequences of such use of land to the north, where savannah goes in the desert. Expanding desert area called spustelennyam. Aerospace withGermans made from artificial satellites, convincingly demonstrated that only the last half century Sahara moved south 200 kmand increased its area of thousands of square kilometers. How can prevent the desert? At the edge of deserts impose forest zone, restricting cattle grazing in areas with sparse vegetation, carry out irrigation arid areas. Big changes occurred by natural systems extraction minerals.

With the change of environment connected with another problem - disappearance many species of plants and animals. Thus, the island of Madagascar, where almost completely destroyed natural forests, half of the species Animals and plants have disappeared or endangered. This concerns endemics, ie species that are not anywhere else on Earth. Since colonization of the continent Animals mass destroyed during пolyuvannya, conducted for Ivory bone, rhino horn, crocodile leather, leather predators, ostrich pen. Completely destroyed white tip wildebeest, zebra kvahha, which had stripes only on the neck and muzzle, which was known for some in South Africa. Number  other animals (elephants, rhinos, gorillas) are greatly reduced.

Prolonged colonial past and irrational use natural resources have led to a serious imbalance between the components natural systems. Therefore, in many African countries facing acute problems Environment.

NATIONAL PARKS. Now humanity realizes the need for environmental protection on Earth. For this purpose, organized protected areas - reserves and national parks. They protected components of natural systems (plants, animals, mountains rocks, etc.) and conducted research work. Reserves have a strict environmental regime, and Mr.atsionalni Parks may attend tourists, who must follow the rules. In Africa, conservation areas occupy large areas (Fig.). They are arranged in different natural complexes - in the mountains, on plains, in moist evergreen forests, savannas, deserts, volcanoes on. Is world-renowned national parks Serengeti, Kruger Ruvenzori.

Serengeti National Park - One of the largest and the most famous in the world. Translated from the language  Maasai his name means vast plain. Park  located in Eastern Africa. It is called African paradise for animals. In his living spaces thousandth of large herds of ungulates (various kinds of antelopes, zebras) and predators (lions, cheetahs, hyenas), which remained untouchable in the way were of time immemorial. National Park Kruger - One of the oldest on the mainland. It originated in southern Africa still 1898 In the savanna land of supreme rulers buffaloes, elephants, rhinos, lions, leopards, cheetahs, giraffes, zebras, various antelopes, with birds - marabou, secretary bird. Every animal species numbering thousands of individuals. They diversity park is often compared to Noah's ark. Ngorongoro National Park located in the crater of extinct volcano. There are protected buffalo, rhinoceroses, antelope, giraffes, hippos, variety of birds. У Park Ruvenzori Protected humanoid apes chimpanzees and gorillas.

Creation of national parks contribute conservation of rare plants, unique wildlife and natural individual complexes in Africa. Thanks to conservation activities of many species that were endangered, restored. The world's largest diversity of species makes Africa a paradise for ekoturystiv

Interesting geography

Interstate Park

There is a grand project to expand the park Kruger in three of South Africa, Zimbabwe and Mozambique, which is almost twice increase the space. It will be a joint international nature reserve. His territory which perevershuvatyme 36 thousand km2Will be the largest planet destination for ecotourism. Removing borders will allow wild animals to freely migrate traditional paths.

Questions and Tasks

1. What natural disasters occur in the land of Africa?

2. What human activity is causing the greatest damage nature?

3. Why flora and fauna of Africa need protection?

4. What is the purpose and nature reserves are created National Parks?