§ 48. Natural areas
1. Remember that natural areas are formed in the Arctic and subarctic zones.
2. What forests common in the temperate zone?
SPREAD Natural areas. On vast territory of Eurasia is all natural areas of the Northern Hemisphere: from wet equatorial forests to arctic desert. They are well marked latitudinal extent. Due to the spread of the mountains, latitude zonation complicated Explain high-rise.
Eurasia - a continent where there were a thousand years ago ancient civilizations and now there is emerging superpower of the world. Therefore, considering the natural areas should be understood that the nature of their significant much changed man. This is especially true in Europe, where rivnenki, neat, "Brushed" gardens and fields, with a record of population density, vast career and roads do not seem zostavyly places wild. In this part of the world remained almost nerozoranyh land, primary forest, disappeared steppes, forest boundaries have shifted on the slopes. Netorkana nature in Eurasia preserved only in remote arctic and sub-Arctic areas, taiga, arid deserts and highlands. In other areas of natural landscapes only in national parks.
Fig. Eurasian Natural Area
Working with map
1. What should reach natural areas in Eurasia?
2. List the natural areas of Eurasia from North to South to 800 SH. d.
3. Compare reach areas arctic, subarctic and temperate zones Eurasia and North America. What can you conclude?
4. Name the natural area located in the temperate climatic zone.
5. Follow wide-reach areas and mixed forests. Explain why the area occupied by these forests, gradually decreases with west to east, and these forests disappear completely.
6. What natural zone located between 400Mon. W and 500 Mon. sh. on the west and east coasts of Eurasia? Why they different?
7. Nowhere on Earth, except Europe woody vegetation does not reach 700 Mon. sh. How to explain it penetration at such high latitudes?
8. Where in Eurasia, placing the zone is violated natural areas? What causes this disorder?
Arctic ZONE And sub-Arctic zone. Arctic desert, tundra and lisotundra in Eurasia not go so far to South as in North America. However, the nature of these areas on both continents much in common.
В Arctic desert, covering the islands of the Arctic Ocean and the northern coast mainland, strict rules Arctic climate. A part of the zone is covered with ice coating. So prevalent as ice, and rocky desert. In the icy deserts not formed soils and plant growth. But in the stony deserts in permafrost on Arctic hleyovyh soils are lichens and mosses sometimes. A few herbaceous plants - saxifrage, arctic poppy, forget-me - have adapted to cold conditions. In this zone, live reindeer, polar bear, polar fox, lemming. Summer on the seaside islands spread rookery where nesting gulls, chornodzobi goose and others.
Winter tundraas severe as in the Arctic desert, but slightly warmer summers. On tundra-hleyevyh soils lichens and mosses form a nearly continuous cover. Among sedge grasses and bushes grow cranberries and holubyky. Protected themselves from strong winds, dwarf birch and alder stelyutsya on the ground. By living in the tundra adapted reindeer, which has thick fur and broad hooves that facilitate his movement through the snow. Dangerous predator - the polar wolf. In the tundra and live blue fox, lemming, white grouse, arctic owl. Many waterfowl - geese, ducks and loons.
У lisotundriwarmer summer, so there are low birch, pine, spruce. In the winter here with vidkochovuyut tundra reindeer and polar fox. And come with taiga moose, brown bear, wolverine. The common hare-Bilyak that can change the color of thick fluffy fur for the season.
FOREST ZONE temperate zone. Forests in Eurasia extended to larger areas. The largest - taiga. The climate there is warmer and humid, than in the tundra, so prevalent woody vegetation. On podzolic soils growing conifers - pine, spruce, fir, larch, Siberian cedar. These domishuyetsya birch. In the taiga live elk, lynx, fox, wild weasel, please. In the forest lives of deaf brown bear, which lies in the winter den and plunges in a dream. Wolves hold on flocks, acute sense of smell allows them to feel prey to a range of 1,5 km. High arrange the trees to their nests proteins. Kedrivka common birds, grouse, black cock.
Fig. Brown Bears
Mixed forests only in the western part mainland. Typical soil zone - sod-podzol. There are growing as coniferous (spruce, pine) and dribnolysti (birch, aspen) and platyphyllous (oak, ash, linden, beech) wood. In animal found in the taiga, where one can encounter roe deer, hare. Richer and the world of forest birds: woodpecker, titmouse, siskin, grouse.
Wide-forests prevalent only in Western Europe because platyphyllous more thermophilic species of trees. Most common in oak forests and beech. There is also growing linden, maple, elm, ash, hornbeam. The main soils are brown wood. In wide-woods live deer, wild boar, roe deer, badger, forest marten, hare, protein. In some areas of the Alps and the Carpathians preserved brown bear. Normal birds woodpecker, titmouse, thrush, nightingale.
Mixed forests of Eurasia and platyphyllous greatly cut down. On plowed plots cultivated crops. Many forest animals were exterminated or are rare and are protected. Thus, XVII art. in Europe was destroyed wild bull round, from which come all kinds of modern cattle. So Also in the early twentieth century. in the wild wild bison have been destroyed. From the complete disappearance they saved only what a few individuals survived in zoos in the world, and only thanks to the efforts of scientists of their livestock now increased to 2 000 individuals. Primary forests remain platyphyllous small arrays - puschamy. Among them, one of the largest protected forest areas Europe National Park Belovezhskaya PushchaLocated at Poland and Belarus. There has been restored bison herd.
The trees of our forests
Lime - tinevytryvale and crymophylactic tree, resistant to gas and smoke, so widely planted the greening of cities. It is famous as a great medonis. Beech - deciduous tree that forms a dense shady forests in mountain areas. Maples are especially good fall when the leaves take various shades of yellow and red colors. They are sturdy and light wood goes to the production of musical instruments. Aspen - poplar cousin. It grows rapidly and the first appears on the cuts and conflagration. With its soft and light in processing wood sticks to get matches.
ZONE-steppe and Plain. Steppe and desert climate is temperate continental and continental with insufficient moistening.
У forest, As you know, there are plants and forest, and steppe. In the western islands of forest area oak groves formed with admixtures of birch, linden and maple, and the east - birch groves. In the steppe areas of feather grass grow, typchak, tonkonih, timothy. In the animal world's forest area presented and steppe animals: moose, marten, wild cat, squirrel, gopher, and other large jerboa.
У plainshotter in summer and posushlyvishe. Because there are often droughts, dry winds, dust storms. Black soil known for their fertility. Steppe vegetation form cereals (feather grass, typchak, tonkonih) and variety of herbs (astragalus, sage, wormwood, male chicken). Among the many animals rodents: gopher, marmot, earth hare, jerboa. With predators common steppe ferret, badger, fox, wolf. Usual Saiga antelope. Typical steppe birds - bustard, partridge, skylark, steppe eagle. Among the most common reptiles and steppe viper snake. In the nineteenth Art. Silverfish Vymer wild horse that once lived in the steppe in Europe. The last animal was killed in the steppes of southern Ukraine.
Now the desert expanses of forest and almost plowed natural vegetation change in grain (wheat, barley, millet) and other crops. On the appearance of primitive natural landscapes show small areas that have been preserved in national parks.
AREA Semi-desert temperate zone. Semi-desert conditions occurred abruptly continental climate with cold winters and hot dry summers. Number precipitation there is less than 100 mm per year. No permanent rivers. Brown soil very poor soils or Wikipedia. Most of surface is covered with rocky or loose scatterings sands. Common also Salt Flat - areas where salt accumulated on the surface. Asian Desert Kum, Gobi, Takla Makan impress his dead appearance.
Under such conditions, vegetation strongly attenuated. Sometimes certain spots grow wormwood and soup - a favorite food camels. Adapted to arid conditions and camel-thorn haloxylon which have very long roots that reach groundwater. Tamarisk record inherent vitality. Even finding themselves under the meter layer of sand, the plant dies. At the ends branches begin to grow new roots quickly restore the covered part plants. A duel between plants and sand continues until until all sand zaroste tree hill not. In the spring, when most rain falls, semi-desert and desert covered with lush greenery and sand sedge beautiful carpet of tulips. However, they quickly vidtsvitayut rush for several weeks to complete their life cycle, reset the seed into the ground and freeze before the dry breath of summer. Desert burn, but then she lives: in thickets rustle rodents (jerboa, ferret), they hunted foxes and jackals-Korsak. Wild ass - Kulan features exceptional stamina and antelope dzeren can not only travel long distances in search of food but also drink salt water. Rare Przewalski's horse was. In the deserts are inhabited dvohorbi camels. Many poisonous snakes and invertebrates (scorpions karakurty).
In Asia, the desert spread not only in a moderate, but in subtropical and tropical zones.
AREA TVERDOLYSTYH evergreen forests and bushes. This nature reserve located in Southern Europe along the coast Mediterranean Sea. It was formed within the subtropical zone. Warm and winter moisture creates conditions for the growth of evergreen trees and shrubs that are not shed leaves during the year. In hot and dry summer, plants well adapted. Some leaves have a dense, shiny, covered with waxy bloom, others - a narrow, covered with hairs. All this reduces evaporation. Forests in this zone almost completely cut down. In their place have sometimes overgrown evergreen shrubs and low trees. Among them, pistachio and myrtle - evergreen shrub, large flowers whose scents contain essential oils used in perfumes. Laurel famous for its sweet-scented leaves, which are widely known and spices used in cooking. Among shrubs grow magnolia trees and arbutus that had received its name from the small edible fruits, like strawberries. Cork oak - a type of oak trees, trunk and branches covered with a thick crust of 5 cm Cork, who finds many uses, cut once in 10 years.
However, the main square in place of summary evergreen tverdolystyh forests occupied farmlands, where fertile brown soils Wheat, oranges, lemons, apricots, peaches, figs, pomegranates, grapes. Planting olive trees form a whole. Due to the high tional territory man in this natural area left almost no wild animals. The islands Mediterranean encounter deer, mountain sheep - wild goat, wild forest cat. Many lizards, snakes, turtles.
Olive tree (olive) has grown in the Mediterranean over 6 thousand years. Since ancient times marynuvaly and ripe black fruit, and green. Olive oil consumed in food and soap made from it. In our time major supplier of canned olives in the world market is Spain, Italy, Greece. Olive branch - a symbol of peace and prosperity.
AREA AC-humid (monsoon) forests. This nature reserve was formed on the southeastern coast of Eurasia under the influence of monsoon. It stretches from the Amur River to the coast Pivdennokytayskoho sea and foothills'Ate Himalayas within temperate, subtropical and subekvatorialnoho zones. Unlike the Mediterranean, the winter here is dry and cool, and summers -Wet. Among soils predominate zhovtozemyand chervonozemy. In the monsoon forests along with coniferous (pine, fir, spruce) and wide- (Oak, beech, maple, ash, linden, walnut) trees temperate latitudes grow subtropical evergreen tree (tulip tree cypress, palms). Further south are growing rubber plant, bamboo, ferns threaded. Sometimes camphoric tree, all of which contain so much oil that it wood is not even damaging insects (camphoric oil is widely used in medicine).
Unfortunately, the vast majority of these forests cut down and land under cultivation. Almost completely destroyed or replaced in less mastered wild areas Animals - agile predator tiger, yellow, leopard, panda bear, bamboo, raccoon dog, monkey and wild boar. Birds are found pheasants, parrots, on the banks Lakes and rivers - herons, pelicans and cranes.
Very peculiar subekvatorialni wetlands, dense, liana forests intertwined Hindustan peninsulas and Indochina. They are called jungle. There is growing teak tree mahogany, which do not decompose in water. High Salov tree reaches 35 meters high. These, once impenetrable forests, brightly painted in the famous Rudyard Kipling tale of Mowgli "The Jungle Book," preserved only in some areas (in Himalayan foothills). A variety of animals (elephants, rhinos, tigers, panthers, boar, deer, etc.). now live mainly in reserves.
Asia - one of the most populated regions. In place of cleared forests for centuries there evolved agricultural landscapes. Now on fields growing different crops: tea bush, cotton, jute (fiber culture), sugar cane, citrus fruits. Rice cultivated in areas specifically filled with water, called checks.
The root of life
Yes name translates herbaceous plant ginseng. Its fleshy root Tonic contains substances that strengthen health and prolong life. Unfortunately, due to predatory harvesting ginseng was rare plants.
ZONE savannah and Woodlands. In savannas Asia red-brown soils grow tall crops, shrubs and wood. Among them are common and some species of acacia trees. At a humidified mountain slopes grow teak Salov, and satin sandal wood, bamboo, Banyan. Some trees in the dry season of 3 - 4 months shed leaves.
In savannas many predators: striped hyena, jackal, leopard, cheetah, lion. Encounter antelope, buffalo, rhino, wild boar. Indian elephant slightly smaller than its African relative, it is easily pryruchayetsya becomes obedient and do heavy chores. Many monkeys and lemurs that cause large losses orchards and kitchen gardens. Birds frequently colorful parrots, pheasants, peacocks, herons. Among the snakes are especially dangerous cobras. In the waters of the Ganges are found crocodiles - gharial. Many insects, including dangerous to humans malaria mosquitoes, ticks, mosquitoes.
AREA WET rainforest. Wet equatorial forests grow in the south of the mainland to the islands and peninsulas. In this zone rule "eternal summer". In always warm and humid climate is developing a rich organic world. On red-yellow soils ferralitnyhdense forests grow. High trees in them reach 70 m height. The leaves on them begins only at a height of 20 m below the lack of light. During high trees are located below, and under them even lower - dwarf palms, and wife of the artist threaded fern. Grasses are almost absent. Among the many endemic species of trees. There are growing mango and breadfruit trees mellon, red and black trees that have valuable timber. Common as a tree (clove, nutmeg), for which in an era of great geographical discoveries carried seagoing because Europe valued spices. Among the lianas which intertwined trees meets rattan, length reaches 300 m. It is on a flexible stalk furniture and other woven products. Common bamboo and orchids.
Wildlife is as diverse. Common monkey including macaques, gibbons, Martyshko, baboon, endemic humanoid orangutans. Rare are the wild bull, rhinos, elephants. With predators meet the tiger, leopard, Malayan bear. Many endemic birds: rhino-bird, peacocks, nektarnytsi. Common snakes, lizards, crocodiles, frogs.
Currently, large areas of moist equatorial forests mastered man. In their place are broken banana plantations, coconut palms, sugar cane, cotton, rice, tea bush. Also cultivated plant kauchukonosnu - Geva. Its trunk and branches contain latex from which to get - latex. In its redesign of factories rubber - particularly solid rubber, which is to produce tires, chewing gum and others.
Questions and Tasks
1. Why Arctic desert soils are not formed, and flora and fauna species composition of the poor?
2. What plants and animals common in the tundra and lisotundri?
3. What forests are common in temperate Eurasia? Name of the default residents of these natural areas.
4. Why natural steppe vegetation had preserved?
5. Tell us about the desert and semi-temperate zone.
6. What special areas of evergreen forests and tverdolystyh shrubs distinguish them from other natural areas?
7. Compare the features of distribution of rainforest Africa, South America and Eurasia.
8. In the case of one of the natural zones tell us about relationships between the components of its nature.
9. What changes were due to natural areas commercial activity?