§ 42. Environment
Remember what geoecologicalsituation.
What natural resources in Ukraine? How are they used?
Monitoring environment. Monitoring - A system of permanent surveillance components in natural or natural-anthropogenic landscapes for conservation, sustainable use of its resources and safety of life and human activities. Such observations, such as the weather and climate, regularly carried out in the world for over a hundred years. Monitoring involves assessment of natural objects and predict their possible changes. This enables provide processes and phenomena in environment, take them into account human activities or prevent them.
Depending on the objects observation distinguish different types of monitoring: geophysical(Monitoring of earthquakes) atmospheric (As air), climatic (According to weather, unfavorable meteorological phenomena climate change) hydrological (As small rivers and other surface groundwater) drum, biological (With vegetation and fauna) Biosphere (By natural processes and phenomena in geographical shell) Geological (Under the influence human activities on environment) hygienic (Per living conditions and human activities).
Monitoring involves monitoring presence in the environment of chemical compounds and elements electromagnetic, noise and other factors, radionuclides, pathogens bacteria, etc., and comparing the number of natural or maximum acceptable indicators. Monitoring conduct special programs at various posts, hospitals, stations, landfills - meteorological, AEROLOGIC, ozonometrychnyh, Hydrological, marine, seismic, sniholavynnyh, biology, forestry, health. Biological monitoring is an integral activity at sites of natural areas, and biosphere - biosphere in reserves which are included in the international monitoring system for geographical shell planet. Different types of monitoring conducted also on economic facilities - industrial, agricultural, transport and recreation.
By covering the territory of distinguished local monitoring, regional, national and global. Local (Or local) Monitoring performed on individual пidpryyemstvah in urban areas landscapes regional - Within the region, territories and natural economic regions, and National - In the national scale. Global monitoring - This observation of the environment on the planet, which is based on international agreements. Information to evaluate and forecast the environment in свITI receive as a result of ground-based observations, aero- And space stezhen of aircraft, satellites and orbital space stations.
Nature. The combination of all forms of human impact on environment and measures for its preservation, called nature. In Ukraine, dominated irrational NatureWhich did not provide protecting the natural environment. Often it was reduced to a predatory exhaustion natural resources, mass uncontrolled pollution and continuous destruction of natural landscapes. As a result, today many components of the environment in Ukraine are depressed, their ability to heal itself weakened.
This the case for many countries. Further development of national economies in this model led to self-destruction of human society. Awareness of this danger has prompted the international community to seek leaving the threatening situation. At the end of the twentieth century. it made the concept of sustainable human development. Sustainable development involves the use of such natural resources by present generations that would not compromise the existence of future generations. Technogenic load on the natural environment should not exceed its capacity to heal itself. Essential to the realization this concept is the public awareness of the benefits of environmental values over others.
Management measures Nature. An extremely important task concept of sustainable development in Ukraine is a transition to sustainable Nature. It predicts the number of active implementation of measures in different sectors of society - industry, agriculture agriculture, construction, transport, housing, area service and leisure. These measures may have a different nature: technical (improving existing and developing new technological processes) Economics (setting fees for consumed resources, economic sanctions harm to the environment), legal (the development and adoption national environmental legislation, accession to international agreements) education-training (formation of ecological culture of the population), public (Control over the ecological situation of the public).
Activities for nature conservation and environmental protection are made by three main interrelated areas.
Direction economical exploitation of natural resources (or Resource) provides lower cost raw materials, fuel, energy production of various products. It is necessary to implement resource and energy saving techniques and technologies in industry, agriculture, transport and other areas economy. Nowadays in Ukraine on production unit spent several times more raw energy than in developed Western Europe.
Large of economies has integrated use of resources. Almost all types of natural Related material containing components. For example, Iron ores are germanium, scandium, vanadium, gold, silver, bismuth, strontium, nickel, titanium, uranium. But now with the ore except iron, withdrawn in Ukraine not more than two additional components, the rest are in dumps. Residual mineral products industry (rock, formed by minerals or after the disclosure extracting useful components) can be used in construction.
Allows substantial savings in return economic circulation material contained in industrial, agricultural, household and other waste. For example, in agriculture since ancient times, use of organic agricultural and domestic waste as manure and compost. Many used materials (scrap, waste paper (cardboard and paper), glass, plastic, rubber tires, textiles, technical oil) become secondary resources. They satisfy the needs of today 40% of the world industry, while in Ukraine - less than 5%.
Re use of materials (recycling) Not only saves raw materials and energy as: the production of paper - at 64% plastic - 80% aluminum - 95%. It also has a huge environmental effect: when producing steel from scrap over ushestero reduced emissions the atmosphere, four times - water pollution, 16 times - the number of solid waste.
Important important is the direction reducing emissions and cleaning environmental and disposal of waste. Every year in Ukraine produced about 1 billion tons of gaseous, liquid and solid waste production and consumption. Many of them contain substances harmful to human and natural environmental substances. Large areas are accumulation mining and mineral processing and landfill. A significant factor poisoning the environment is chemicalization agriculture.
That reduce emissions and adopt low-waste clean and non-waste technologies vicious cycle of water, waste water and dust-gas emissions pass through special purification stations and units, where decontaminate, or catch neutralized polluting impurities; vehicles moved into an environmentally friendly fuels (eg biofuels), creating green areas along highways, in cities and around them. The transition to agriculture, which uses organic fertilizers and biological methods to protect plants from pests and weeds, give opportunity to exclude application of agricultural chemicals and mineral fertilizers.
Clear environment from existing savings and industrial waste dumps and prevent the formation of new enables utilization – use of wastes as secondary resources. Scrap metal, waste paper, bottles go into production again, "empty" rock used as raw materials for production building materials, processing methods developed chemical materials. Agricultural, food waste, sawdust and wood residues, is the raw material for textile fuel production. An important elementary recycling household waste is sort that can be carried out on waste recyclingplants and the population itself.
Today, Ukraine is more than 700 officially registered large garbage landfills. According specialists they can obtain up to 15 annuallymillion м3 Biogas - fuel for energy production.
Direction Protection and restoration of natural conditions and resources provides for the conservation and enhancement biological diversity, protection of springs and small rivers, soil conservation and restoration of fertility, reforestation, of landscapes etc.. Increasingly relevant in Ukraine is Reclamation –range of activities aimed at restoring damaged lands. With this in site of former quarries, dumps or dumps can be seen again natural landscapes, agricultural lands or place to relax people.
Of environmental measures - an important goal of the state and local power. Their implementation requires considerable resources, effort, finding new solutions. However, their failure threatens the existence of future generations. Saving the environment largely depends on each of us from understanding continuity of our relations with nature, from our public position often from our daily behavior.
Environmental monitoring - a system constant surveillance of its individual components and landscapes.
Nature - a set of all forms human impact on the environment and measures for its preservation.
Rational Nature provides for the implementation of measures for economical operation natural resources, clean emissions and waste disposal, health and restoration of natural conditions and resources.
Questions and Tasks
1. What is monitored? What are the types of monitoring?
2. What is called nature?
3. What is the nature prevailed in Ukraine during the twentieth century. and why?
4. What action for rational nature to be brought into Ukraine?