TOPIC 12. Mechanical engineering and metal UKRAINE
§ 19. Total characteristics of engineering
1. Provide examples of vehicles and equipment in various industries, agriculture and transport.
2. What, in your opinion, serves as the main raw material for production machinery and equipment? Does Ukraine have their own raw material base for development of engineering?
Sectoral COMPOSITION. Engineering - Leading industry industry which ensures the production of a variety of machines and equipment for bahatoh industries economy and population. Mashynobuduvannya determine the scientific and technicalprogress in the national economy, ensures its technical reweapons intensification and increased efficiency of the entire societyfoot production.
Mechanical engineering is a highly sophisticated industry, which origin intals few dozens of specialized fields. Depending on the products they grouped: heavy, transport, salttural, accurate machinery, machine tool industry.
Fig. Engineering and Metalworking
In the early 90's XX Art. Engineering produced approximately thirds of total industrial products in Ukraine. Now, due to stop many powerful business volume products much decreased, and some production completely disappeared. Largestnecks decline took place in heavy industries (especially energyIn fact, mining) Agricultural Engineering, car- and instrumentation and others.
Production engineering industry consists of many parts and aggregates. Produce them in one plant can not be easier and whereshevshe produce Individual parts of different companies, so manobudivni plants have largely narrow specialization (podetalnu and substantive). For finished production company installsyut cooperation links among themselves (Delivery of parts, componentsing materials, raw materials). These constraints can be covered by de-dozen, and sometimes hundreds of enterprises.
Technological processes like machine-building enterprises, notDespite different products they produce. Every great plant has four main departments: casting, forging and pressing, mechanicalnyy and assembly. The first metal cast different parts in the second - the details kuyut stamp or rolled or bars, in the third - Process them, and in the fourth - is ready products.
PRINCIPLES ACCOMMODATION. Companies are allocated mayut different from other industries Features placement. They almost do not depend on natural conditions and resources, their products have a wide range of consumers. As a result, developed in engineering all the regions, fromvariation are as different levels of development and recruitment industries, their know-capability in different areas. In some regions they are the areas of specialtion, in others - only satisfy the needs of the region.
One of the important principles of placement machinery buildtions - orientation for raw materials. The main raw materials for enterprises industry - metal and structural materials that produce light chemical, wood processing industry. Machine-building enterprises conLive 1 / 3 rolled, almost 2 / 3 of steel casting, 40% pig iron produced in the country. Companies that require large of metal referred to metalomistkyh. Metalomistki development of mostlymischeni in areas metallurgical industry.
Majority machine-building industries is to trudomistof torments ie those require relatively little raw, but significant labor costs manufacturing products. Orientation for labor - second principle placement. Constantly increasing requirements for training the workforce.
In all areas of growing importance of engineering research and research and development activities. Naukomistkist - re-znachalna feature of many modern engineering industry. Such production tend the largest cities and agglomerations where skontsentrovana scientific base of the country.
At the location of enterprises that produce vazhkotransportabelnu products also significantly affects the consumer, but by placing assembly firms that have branched cooperation links with other centers, is utility of economic geography (especially transvehi) position.
Machine-building complex developed largely the expenseNOC conversion, ie transfers of undertakings, previously servicingshafts of military-industrial complex, to create new productionproduction, high technology (development modern industrial and electricalneural appliances, computers). Is also important creation small, flexible technology for business Release diversethem 'Goods consumption.
Questions and Tasks
1. Name the group of machine-building industries.
2. Specify placement principles specific to the business of heavy engineering.
3. Where in hosting companies tend Agricultural and Transport Engineering?