TOPIC 16. LIGHT INDUSTRY OF UKRAINE. ARTISTIC FIELDS
§ 24. FAQ industry
Sectoral STAFF. Light industry Ukraine cover aare the areas that produce goods peopleconsumption foot - textile, clothing, shoes, and Haberdashery perfumes and more. Among them - textiles, garments, knitwear, leather haberdashery, footwear, fur and other industries. Besides consumer goods manufacturing and capital goods - cord, cables, artificial leather, etc..
Raw materials for industry are natural, artificial and synthetic fibers. Light industry in Ukraine processes as its own (Linen, leather, fur, chemical fiber wool) and imported (wool, cotton, textile) materials.
In Ukraine, light Industry was formed in the second half of the nineteenth century. It was then , the first tannery in Kievand Berdichev, Jute factory in Odessa, Rope plant Kharkiv. Light Enterprises industry in the early twentieth century. more resembled handicraft workshops and have had little production. But after half a century, when the built a powerful enterprises, the industry is developing at an accelerated pace. At the end of the twentieth century. light industry occupied an important place in the economy Ukraine. Its share in the structure of industrial production was almost 12%. However, in recent years have seen significant reductions in its production (1% in the structure of industry in Ukraine in 2003).
Fig. Light Enterprises industry-oriented human resources
Light industry are targeted to the consumer, Zhinight Workforce and sources of raw materials, so they are common heartburnscrap, all over Ukraine. But light industry always lagged behind the needs of society range, quality and production volumes, and nowadays it is in deep crisis, its share in industrial production declined.
Fig. Light industry
Textile industry. Тekstylna Industry is the leader in cost of products in stock light Industry. It uses natural (cotton, WWIInurse, linen and silk) and synthetic (viscose, Kapron, nylon et al.) fiber.
Textiles include cotton, wool, linen and silk fabricsThat produce tissue thread, yarn, etc.. Production Pattern tissue is as follows: cotton - 71% wool - 10% silk - 18 Linen - 1% (in 2003).
The manufacture of fabrics from natural (natural) fibers consists of several stages: primary processing of raw materials -> spinning -> weaving -> Processing (Bleaching, dyeing, etc.).. In the first stage is hemp production. It requires much costs of raw materials, so often primary processing is carried out in local productstion of raw cotton, lonopererobnyh, shovkomotalthem vovnomyynyh or factories. If all stages of tissues under combined in oneenterprises, it is called textile Plant. There are enterprise which focuses on one or two stages of production fabric - a weaving, spinning, spinning and weaving, Finishing or weaving-finishing factory. Each of the sectors of textile industry has its own characteristics placement.
Cotton branch Ukraine together Spinning, weaving, torsional-threads production. Field work on imported raw material that comes mainly from Uzbekistan and Egypt. The main centers of industry are Kherson, Where the most powerful in Ukraine Cotton Mill, Ternopil, Donetsk, Nikopol (Factory threads) Chernivtsi. There as large This enterprise field is Kiev, Kharkiv, Lviv, PoltavaThat directs non-sterile in placing on Female labor force.
Guernsey branch cover ais enterprise with the primary processing of wool, wool yarn production and fabric. In Ukraine the first Cloth Manufactory was established in the village. Ryashky (Prilutsky region Chernihiv region) as early as 1722 Now industry has two dozen businesses and industries. The raw material for the production of woolen fabrics has its own and imported, mainly from Australia, wool. Wool fabric produced in Chernihiv (ConcernCheksil" - One of the largest companies in Europe) Lugansk Krivoy Rog, Dunaevtsy(GAIN), Sumac, Kharkiv, Odessa. Carpet wool and synthetic fibers carried out in Boguslav (Kiev region) Kiev and Cherkasy.
Linseed industry cover ais domestic production of fabrics and technical appointment (Fire hoses, packing materials, etc.). In Ukraine, numbering over 30 and 2 lonozavodiv Lnokombinat. Primary processing of flax is carried on small lonozavodah tending to raw materials. They are located in the north, where most concentrated plantings of flax-flax (Жиtomyrska, Rivne, Lviv і Chernihiv region. Just the same linen cloth made of flax factory in Rivne and Zhytomyr.
Konopledzhutova branch worked as a own and on imported raw materials. Its main products are sacking packing materials, cables, cords and more. Since the late nineteenth century. leading centers of the industry is Kharkiv (Rope Factory) and Odessa (Jute mill.)
Silk branch produces silk yarn and fabric from it. Raw is natural, artificial and synthetic fibers. The main centers of the industry - Kyiv, Cherkasy and Luck.
But over the past decade, textile industry in Ukraine is experiencing a decline - the total production of all kinds tissues decreased by more than 10 times (for 1990-2003).
Garment industry. Sewing industry is second place in the light industry for the cost of production. Sewing Industry has widespread. Its business is many cities in Ukraine almost every district center. The most powerful centers in the garment industry are typically large cities (Kyiv, Dnipropetrovsk, Kharkiv, Odessa, Lvov, Chernivtsi), Which focused on several garment factories with a significant number employed. Now Ukrainian garment industry is mostly to order foreign companies using our cheap labor. The lion's share production goes for export.
Knitted and Leather and Footwear INDUSTRY. Knitting industry pawn-yetsya manufacturing knitted fabrics, linen, knitted products, shkarpecurrent and stocking of natural and chemical fibers. In his placing completely to the end user. Large enterprise is in Kiev Kharkiv, Lviv Odessa, Mykolayiv, Chernivtsi, Zhytomyr.
Footwear industry nowadays due competition with products of other countries is stagnating. Volumes footwear production fell several times. The largest companies are located in leadcities in — Odessa, Kiev, Luhansk, Kharkiv, Lviv, Focused on consumer and labor.
Fur industry in Ukraine covers only several businesses у Kharkiv Tysmenytsia (Ivano-Frankivsk region), Balti (Odessa region), Zhmerynka (Vinnitsa region) Shepetovke (GAIN).
Leather haberdashery industry - A production and tanning of leather, manufacture of neckties, handkerchiefs, kerchiefs, ribbons, jewelry, bags and other consumer goods. Largest centers Leather and notions industry is Kyiv, Lviv, Kharkiv, Boryspil, Kiev, Odessa.
The main problems of light industry - backward technology production and low product quality. They can be solved a result of reconstruction and modernization and joint with other countrieswe are States companies. The presence of huge textile mills (especially cotton) causes significant supply problems raw materials from abroad. It couldan optimal upgrading of enterprises, change of produc-inter-state agreement linen and other fabrics.
Craft. In all regions of Ukraine developed the traditional crafts of manufacture of textiles (carpets, towels, tapestries, etc...) Keepingrehlysya and traditions production of wool and leather products, which people use the next manufactured goods. Everything JVITovi known artists products from Kosovo Vyzhnytsi, Coloma, Chernivtsi, Lviv, Ternopil, Reshetylivka, Bohuslav, Krolevets et al.
Light industry includes industry that produce goods peopleconsumption foot - textile, clothing, shoes, Haberdashery and more.
In light industries include textiles, garments, knitwear, leather and fur shoe, Leather haberdashery and other industries.
Light industries Ukraine to work as your own (linen, wool), and imported raw materials (Wool, cotton).
Questions and tasks.
1. What light industry developing in Ukraine on its own rawwine?
2. Name the features of placing branches of the textile, shoe, garment industry in Ukraine.
3. For which sectors of light industry in Ukraine is missing (or limited) stuff?
4. Tell us what problems now facing the light industry of Ukraine.