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§ 29. General characteristics of transport. Rail transport (textbook)



§ 29. Totalcharacteristic transport. Rail transport

1.     What are the benefits of transport and geographical Position of Ukraine?

2.     What is transit?


TRANSPORT INDUSTRY IN ECONOMY.  Transport is industry which is on the joint production and service areas. It creates no material assets, and provides transport goods and people, developing ties between businesses, industries, regions. It is also called "bloodfrom the remote system economy ", because it is a necessary condition for the functioning of the economy.

Transportation is divided into passenger and cargo, depending on objects it carried. Freight transport provides productionnychi links between delivery of public enterprises and consumer products, basic performing his work is passengerrevezennya (Number of transported cargo in a year tons) and freight (Product volume goods transported to a distance transport (t • km).

Passenger Transport provides transportation of people, his major indices is passenger conveyance (Number passengers transported per year) and passenger (Product number of passengers distance traffic, measured in passenger).

Allocate the following types of transport: rail, terboprovidnyy, sea, river, air.

Depending on the environmental movement in their group land, watera limited and air transport.

Each one has its specificity. To ensure the functioning of the economy countries all modes of transport should be linked to work harmoniously. The combination of all modes of transport, united among themselves transport networks (Roads) and nodes, which occurs atMin cargo and passengers called transport system.


Fig. Transport


RAIL TRANSPORTATION. The first place for the handling capacity and of the passengersroobihom among all Transport in Ukraineacterised takes Railway. It plays an important role both in vnutriderzhavtion and interstate traffic over long distances. Length railways in Ukraine is 22 kilometers, nearly 2 / 5 of them - elektryfiforged. The density of paths-37 miles of tracks in 1 thousand km2territory. The highest density of railways in the Donbass, whendniprov'yi and western part of Ukraine.

The first railway in Ukraine were built between the cities Przemysl - Lviv (1861) Odessa - Balta (1865) Balta - Zherinka - Kyiv (1870) Lions - Volochisk - Zherinka (1871). Now Mr.ayvazhlyvishymy railways Ukraine are: Kyiv - Fastiv - Kozyatin - Zdolbuniv - Lions - Chop; Fast - Znamianka - Dnepropetrovsk - Donbass; Kyiv - Poltava - Kharkov; Krivoy Rog - Osh - Donbass; Kharkiv - Donbass; Kharkiv - Zaporizhia - glorioustrees, and those that go to sea ports and frontiers of the country. The biggest railway junctions - Kyiv, Lviv, Kharkiv, Dnipropetrovskrespiratory exercises, Znamianka, Yasynuvata, Zaporozhye. Most downloaded in Ukraine is a gauge of Donbass and Dnieper, where the structure of transport reprofess coal, iron and manganese ore, metal. In addition, irontransported to enroll a significant number of construction materials and grain.

Most high-speed rail line, which runs passengerzhyrski Express trains, connect the capital with the largest EIstanbul - Kharkiv and Dnepropetrovsk. Similar nearest highwayWhat time will run to Lviv and Odessa.

In Ukraine there are Lviv, South West, Odeplishment, and Dnieper Donetsk railway. All of them carry larges scope of internal and export-import transportation, and the LionsGeorgia was formed powerful railroad railway that work on Central and Western Europe (Lviv, Kovel, Chop). Traddepth, second round Ukrainian Railways carry transit traffic Cargo of Russia's Black Sea ports of Ukraine and to Europe, as well as passenger transportation from Russia to the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, ABCtriyu, country Balkan Peninsula.

Some problems in international traffic arising with different width roads in Ukraine (the so-called broad gauge) and its western neighbors (the so-called European track). Replacing the wheels on the borders results into pursue a loss of time during transportation.


Fig. Odessa port


Fig. Lighthouse - an important element of the state transportation system



Transport is a branch of the economy, which is on the joint production and service areas. Characterize the transport vantozho-and passenger transport cargo and passenger.

Transportation is divided into land (rail, road, Trouboprovidnyy), water (Sea, river), air (air).

Rail transport has a long history of development and remains the leading type of cargo and of the passengersroobihu among all Transport in Ukraineacterised.


Questions and Tasks

1. That is the transport system and that its form of transport?

2. What kinds of transportation took the lead in cargoand passenger conveyance?

3. What are the main cargo of rail, road transport?

4. What are the advantages and disadvantages of the main modes of transport.