Ukrainian revolution witnessed a fervent Ukrainian aspirations to create their own state. In 1917 the Ukrainian people has received a historic chance to break free from foreign dependence and create their own unified democratic state.
Participants and researchers Revolution indicate the reasons for such:
dependent and oppressed situation of Ukraine, velykoderzhavnytska policy on her ruling circles of both Russia and Austria-Hungary.
poor social situation of the majority of the population. Lack of resolution of agricultural issues and social workers.
rise of Ukrainian national liberation movement, its organizational and ideological design.
The immediate impetus for the revolution was the First World War, which has exacerbated the problem of warring states, weakened and led to the collapse of the Russian and later the Austro-Hungarian empires. It gave a historic chance to the Ukrainian people in their struggle for statehood.
March 8 (23 February Old Style) 1917 in the Russian Empire, its capital, Petrograd, the revolution broke out. Hey, desperate and destitute by the war failed, went to fight against their abusers. Tsar Nicholas II, unable to subdue the rebellion, 15 (2) March 1917 renounced the throne. The tsarist regime that oppressed peoples for centuries, poured a few days.
overthrow of tsarist put on the agenda of the future destiny of the country and about authority. Society split into supporters of different, sometimes diametrically opposed, views on this issue. One part of society, which was led by emerging Provisional Government kept the idea of freedom of private property, entrepreneurship and democracy. That is, those values are based on European civilization. To do this, it was necessary, in their opinion, the triumphant end the First World War. However, their views were not shared by the bulk of the peasantry and working class, which rallied around the workers 'councils created and soldiers' deputies. They argued that the proposed Interim Government measures are not sufficient and that should provide normal life for most people: stop, finally, war, give land to peasants set up an efficient system of social protection and guarantees rights and freedoms. Most radical figures (Bolshevik Party) have called for destruction of private property and establish common equity and justice, that the introduction of socialist (communist) system of society. Opposition supporters of different political views resulted in a sharp struggle that led to civil war.
Whirlwind revolution captured and Ukraine.
For assertion Ukrainian needed a guiding center. Efforts Kyiv Ukrainian leaders have created the Ukrainian Central Rada. At first it was one of Kiev's organizations that emerged in the city under the influence of the revolution. UCR was elected Chairman of the most authoritative figure of the Ukrainian movement, historian Hrushevsky. Election day management of the UCR 20 (7) March 1917 is the date of its establishment.
UCR Very quickly gained the trust of the population. Evidence of this were thousands of demonstrations in the Ukrainian yellow-blue flags in St. Petersburg and Kiev, and eventually other cities.
inspired support on the ground, workers took over the UCR program development activities and requirements of Ukrainian, as well as organizational design movement. To this end, in early April was convened All-Ukrainian National Congress. On it came about 1500 delegates from different parts of Ukraine. The Congress strongly endorsed the course to claim the national-territorial autonomy within Ukraine of a federal and democratic Russia, subject to the rights of all peoples who live in Ukraine, and the same rights of the Ukrainian minority in Russia.
UCR from Kiev organization has become an all-.
Congress and his decision to promote the continued deployment of the Ukrainian movement, which began to cover all new strata of society: peasants, workers and especially the military (for the war to the Russian army was mobilized 3.5 million Ukrainian) are delegated to their representatives UCR. As a result of increased numerically UCR and the National Center into a Ukrainian representative body - the parliament.
next step UCR began negotiations with the Provisional Government. The essence of the requirements of the Ukrainian delegation was to ensure that the Russian government recognized the autonomy of Ukraine, and set its boundaries. But in Petrograd ukrantsyam refused. While Ukrainian officials embarked on practical implementation of the idea of autonomy of Ukraine without agreement with the Russians.
June 10, 1917 at the Second All-Ukrainian Military Congress V. Vynnychenko read text and wagon UCR, which proclaimed: "Do not oddilyayuchys from all over Russia, not breaking from the Russian state, let the people of Ukrainian their land alone has the right to their own life. Let the order and order in the Ukraine provide selected elementary, equal, direct and mystery Early voting Ukrainian Assembly (Diet). All laws must give way here that we, in the Ukraine have the right to publish only our Ukrainian meeting ».
Universal Publishing and caused flash of enthusiasm in Ukrainian society. UCR has reached the highest point of popularity.
proof of serious intentions UCR was the establishment of the General Secretariat - the Ukrainian government, headed by V. Vynnychenko.
Alarmed by these developments Provisional Government yielded. Between Petrograd and Kyiv have signed contract, which was designed as a Universal II. Thus, the delayed implementation of the idea of UCR declaration of autonomy of Ukraine to the National Constituent Assembly, and TU obliged to recognize the General Secretariat of State authority in five Ukrainian Provinces: Kyiv, Poltava, Chernigov, Podolia and Volyn.
In the development of the Ukrainian revolution and of the UCR is a moment when people needed to show its ability to manage and solve practical problems. But this Ukrainian leaders were not ready. Rapidly falling living standards.
Meanwhile aroused revolutionary Russia could become a normal life. Various political movements by force attempted to seize power. In early November (late October) 1917, the Bolsheviks did revolt against the Provisional Government and destroyed it. Before UCR set choice: to support people like the deposed Russian government to recognize the Bolsheviks or to proclaim the independence of the Ukrainian state.
accelerated the resolution of the situation the Bolsheviks themselves by trying to seize power in Kiev. November 10 (October 29) in 1917 began fighting between supporters of the Bolsheviks and TU. Following this, the forces committed to UCR, led the warring parties to cease fighting and established its control over the city. In this situation, 22 (7) November 1917 UCR issued its Universal III. It stated: "Now Ukraine is the Ukrainian National Republic. Without separating from the Russian Republic and preserving its unity, we stand firmly on our land, to all the Russian Federation Republic became free and equal peoples. Ukraine to the constituent assembly, the whole power of creating order in our land, to give laws and rule belongs to us, the Ukrainian Central Rada, and our Government - Secretariat General of Ukraine ».
Moreover III proclaimed the Universal broad program of reforms that would have to change the Ukrainian life for the better.
contained in the Universal and promise to immediately begin peace talks on Ukraine's withdrawal from the First World War. 11 (24) December 1917 Secretariat General appealed to all belligerents and neutral countries of the note, which stated that the UPR will make international relations independently. Ukrainian delegation joined the peace talks, which began Soviet Russia with the countries of the Quadruple Alliance in Brest-Litovsk. On the eve of departure of the delegation, headed by V. Golubovych (later O. Sevryuk), instructed her in detail Hrushevsky.
delegation should seek the inclusion of the People's Republic of eastern Galicia, Bukovina, Transcarpathia, Holm, Podlasie, in case of failure - the formation of these lands in the Austro-Hungarian separate crown land with wide autonomy.
Negotiations started December 28, 1917 (10 January 1918).
February 9, 1918 agreement was entered into with the countries of the UPR Quadruple Alliance. Under the contract, the UPR is committed to put Germany and Austria-Hungary, 60 million pounds of bread, 2750 thousand pounds of meat, 400 million eggs and other agricultural products and raw materials. The delegations of Germany and Austria-Hungary agreed to join Holm and Podlasie to UNR and education at Western separate crown land. Brest-Litovsk treaty laid the international legal recognition of Ukraine as a sovereign state and has demonstrated the success of the young Ukrainian diplomacy. Agreement outlined the borders of Ukraine gained international recognition.
After signing a peace treaty delegation UNR announced that the Central Council is in serious condition and requires immediate assistance.
In February 1918 the Quadruple Alliance troops attacked in Ukraine, moved ahead of them Ukrainian part. March 3, 1918 in Brest-Litovsk peace treaty with Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria and Turkey signed and RSFRR. Russia obliged to recognize the right of the Ukrainian nation to self-government the legitimacy of the Central Council in Ukraine, to accept the agreement of the Austro-German block of the UPR, to conclude a peace treaty, to withdraw from its territory of the Red Guard to stop any agitation and propaganda against the government and public institutions UPR.
March 1, 1918 Soviet troops left Kyiv, March 7 has returned in UCR. During March-April, Soviet troops were ousted from all over Ukraine. One of the important decisions UCR was the adoption of the new administrative divisions.