§ 23 GROWTH POLITICAL ACTIVITY SOCIETY
1. Deployment national democratic processes in Ukraine
Launched political reform of transparency and pluralism thoughts contributed rapid recovery of activity of the masses, polarizing dissemination of national-democratic views, the formation of independent official power of informal social organizations and associations.
In Ukraine Years 1985-1991. Struggle for Independence
At rallies, public meetings began criticism of the current system, leaders-conservatives, which hampered the conduct of reforms.
Driving forces of perestroika moved from the center to place in the creative and production teams. Spearhead society, above all sensible people, not only criticized the Present system but expressed a willingness join в Search upgrade paths life of the republic, resolving urgent problems.
In Ukraine, began to form legal opposition, who created competition and the Soviet Communist power structures.
Initiated deployment of a democratic and national movements performed creative intelligentsia of the country.
In IX Congress Writers of Ukraine (June 1986) sharply raised the problem the position of Ukrainian language and culture. A. Gonchar said about the urgent need for its protection and development. Ivan Drach stated that "we have learned to speak enough openly about the truth of how we lived and live. "
Summer 1987 plenum of the Union of Writers Ukraine, expressing deep concern that gradually with daily life away Ukrainian, demanded it constitutional protection. Go to the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR sent a letter to the appropriate signatures Mushketyka Yu, B. Oleynik, D. Pavlichko, O. Gonchar and other writers turned to their Russian colleagues and to support their claim establishing mandatory study of native and Russian languages in schools national republics.
Enhance public opinion helped policy of "glasnost".
newspapers, the first informal "Choice" (Kyiv), "Free Ukraine"
(Drohobych), "Progress" (Lviv). Former dissidents resumed publication
socio-political magazine "Ukrainian Journal", which actively joined
with the official authorities.
The authors of publications are openly write and talk about facts and events that took place in Ukrainian history literature, art and so diligently zamovchuvalysya before. Pioneering role in eliminating "blind spots" and protecting the national culture performed Writers' Union of Ukraine and its newspaper Literary Ukraine.
Growing interest Ukrainian history. Pidnovlennya historical truth was the main purpose of the Ukrainian Cultural Club (UKK), established in Kyiv August, 1987 initiated by former dissidents.
Exposing Soviet criticism of the existing system, national policies of the central leadership, the club members applied simultaneously to history of Ukrainian statehood, clarifying the nature Ukrainian national liberation struggle of 1917-1921, the causes and consequences of Stalin's repressions in Ukraine and others.
Based on documentary sources was revealed the truth about the causes of the famine of 1932-1933 in Ukraine, a new light represented "Ukrainization" 20's. Members of the club began to take off veil ban on creativity М.Kulish Wave M., M. Zerov, V. Pidmogylny, Vynnychenko, Hrushevsky M. Kostomarov, D. Yavornitskogo and others. Club visited by people of different professions and ages, who testified to their growing interest in Ukrainian historyoriyi.
Growing interest in Ukrainian history was typical for other associations and clubs. In particular, in Lviv were act cultural and educational Lion Society and youth political discussion club. They viewed of the national history, literature and economics.
In the House of Scientists of NAS of Ukraine emerged club "Heritage" and shortly at the Kiev University student association "Community". On this basis there Ukrainian Students Society (USS).
Started their activities other youth organizations: Union Independent Ukrainian Youth (SNUM) Democratic Union of Students (DSS) Student Fellowship.
The activities of these Associations and clubs showed the beginning of the destruction of official organizations and communist ideological cliches.
Film-makers, writers, artists, theater personalities, composers have created educational community in Moscow Memorial.
Meeting dedicated to the establishment in Ukraine of historical and educational society Memorial. Kyiv, 1989
Constituent conference of the Ukrainian Branch Society held in Kiev in March 1989 Its coordination Board included director Л.Tanyuk, kinopublitsyst V. Kuznetsov, writer В.Scarecrow and others. Society "Memorial" in favor of perpetuating Memory victims of the repression suffered by Ukrainian people. One with shares first became an international symposium "Famine of 1932-1933 in Ukraine " held in September 1990
In other cities Republic also began to operate branches of the company. Special Activity found Lviv Oblast Organization Memorial, headed by Academician І.Yukhnovsky. Society demanded of party-state structures public condemnation of the crimes of Stalinism and Soviet punitive organs, performed in the 20's and 80's. They expressed their per reassessment of the political, civil and military organizations operated at various times at Western. In the spirit of national revival sounded requirements restore national monuments destroyed during the Soviet totalitarian regime.
A characteristic feature socio-political Life in Ukraine in this period, the revival of these forms of vertically upholding the rights and freedoms as rallies, protests, meetings, demonstrations. Every day they acquired the scale of political time, all frequently heard calls for breaking the bureaucratic party system, condemning Russification policies and destroying the national achievements of the Ukrainian people recognition in the society of human values, respect for national culture, individual freedom, democracy and independence.
Especially active was the democratic movement in western Ukraine, where preserved yet the tradition of national liberation movements. June 13, 1988 Lviv the first in Ukraine during the Soviet era, thousands unauthorized rally. The participants condemned the totalitarian regime, demanded that the government guarantees ensuring the rights and freedoms of every person.
In the capital of Ukraine hosted the first independent environmental performance, while 13 November 1988 meeting held the participation of 20 thousand people dedicated to environmental issues republic. The rally raised the issue of personal responsibility and higher party state leadership for the consequences of the Chernobyl tragedy.
Demonstrations and rallies were harbingers of ecological association Green World, headed by writer Yu Shcherbak Association does not only acted to protect the environment, but also exposed the pernicious government policies that permitted the havoc nature of Ukraine.
According to official information at the beginning of May 1989 to hold rallies were filed 279 applications were 72 unauthorized rallies.
Former political prisoners restored Ukrainian Helsinki Group, az time turned it into Ukrainian Helsinki Union (UHU).
Chairman Union chose L. Lukyanenko, which at the time of creation of the Union was still in exile. Union immediately directing its activities in political mainstream. July 7, 1988 She unveiled a program document, which summarized and expressed needs that sounded at that time rallies, meetings, conferences and debates.
One of Chief among these – requirement for power structures to guarantee the right of the Ukrainian nation to self-determination. Emphasized, that without the implementation of this law can not provide true freedom of the people.
Originally UHU argued for the confederation union republics, with their broad independence, but quickly withdrew the slogan and announced the need to exit Ukraine from the USSR and the creation of an independent state. This position of principle Union was openly promoted as the Ukrainian lands, and beyond.
Treated demand the legalization of Church and UAOC.
All this meant that Union has gone beyond framework of human rights activiCTI signs and entered the political opposition organizationї. At the beginning of 1990 Union accounted for about 1,5 thousand members, had branches in almost all regions of Ukraine, representatives in Moscow and Baltic as well as abroad.
2. Formation of the People's Movement Ukraine
Proposal create an organization that would promote "transformation" in the republic, there was still autumn 1988 among Ukrainian writers. Among those who supported this idea were І.Drach, D. Pavlychko, V. Yavorivsky, Boris Oleinik, П.Movchan and others.
In January 1989 general meeting of the Kiev writer approved draft program People's Movement Ukraine for Perestroika (So called People's Movement to 1990).
The spring of that But in regions of the republic began to appear Communities Movement. They united democratic-minded intellectuals, liberal employees, former dissidents and those communists at that time Ukraine stood for sovereignty, but within the union federation.
In September 1989 constituent assembly was held ANR. They attended the 1109 delegates. In decisions stressed that the Movement acts constitutional within and aspires to true democracy in the republic, maintain cooperation with the Councils of People's Deputies and their bodies. In the adopted documents at the meeting said, The movement that advocates "Renewed socialist Society and of the Ukrainian State, signing a new union contract.
From the People's Movement of Ukraine program for restructuring (September 1989)
The main purpose determines the movement: - restore parliamentary government by Ukraine's independence, creation of a democratic and humane society in which will be achieved true democracy, people's welfare and conditions for decent life Rights, Recovery and comprehensive development of the Ukrainian nation, providing national and cultural needs of all ethnic groups in the republic.
3. Movement became in front of goals:
a) to cooperate fully renaissance man as morally responsible person;
b) promote national-state construction, aiming at transforming Ukraine into independent, the rule of law, aimed to ensure the free development of personality, Human Rights and the nation, that the implementation of democratic freedoms;
c) seek radical economic restructuring on the basis of Ukraine's economic independence, taking into account regional and structural features;
d) keep relentless struggle against the policies of denationalization, to seek the necessary conditions for free development and self-preservation of the Ukrainian people, to promote spiritual revival of the Ukrainian nation on the basis of comprehensive development Ukrainian language and culture, of historical memory and national consciousness citizens, nurturing a sense of national dignity;
e) promote the full development of languages and cultures of national minorities and ethnic groups living in the republic, to stand to protect their vital rights and interests ...
Questions for document
1. Carefully read the passage I Draft Programme ANR. What seen the authors of the project objective of the Movement?
2. Try to determine how an author imagined the NRU Political status of Ukraine.
Further development of social and political processes has advanced to the Movement need to change approaches to solving the urgent problems the existence of Ukraine.
In October 1990 was held in Kyiv second nationwide meeting of the Movement. Approved documents showed radicalization Movement and the transition to the new political line. A evolution Movement: of support official rate in the "perestroika – opposition to the CPSU (Communist Party).
People's movement sought to unite all the national-democratic effort to turn them into official government opposition. It raised the slogan: From People's Movement for Perestroika – the Popular Movement for the revival of the sovereignty of Ukraine.
Elected chairman of the Movement Ivan Drach said: "Only full sovereignty of the Ukrainian people, completely independent Ukrainian government to meet the modern development of world civilization.
3. Revitalization social and political life
Ukraine's democratic forces began openly use national symbols. March 26, 1989 on Meeting in Memory of the Chernobyl disaster in Ukraine for the first time the Soviet zamayorilo power blue-yellow banner, and on May 1 from column lvovyan national flags, broken by through the police cordon, took part in festive demonstration.
January 21, 1990, proclamation in honor of Unification Act (association), and UNR ZUNR January 22 1919. in one state, in "live chain" that stretches from Kyiv to Lviv by Ivano-Frankivsk under national flags were already hundreds of thousands of people.
July 24, 1990 National flag, consecrated in the area near Saint Sophia Cathedral hoisted on the mast in front of the Kiev City Council. Increasingly, in different classrooms became the anthem-sounding song П.Chubinskogo "Ukraine has not perished".
At that time in Ukraine there mass independent labor movement.
Satisfied that the hope for improvement material and social situation is not justified, the workers resorted to strikes. The first strike in Ukraine July 15, 1989 Miners mine «Yasinuvatska-DeepIn Makeyevka. Then center events moved in Donetsk. By some estimates, strike support, ceasing work, groups 182 mines.
The workers demanded the provision of economic independence mines, raising wages, the decision in mining towns and settlements and social housing and living problems. In Stakhanov Chervonohrad Pavlograd already put forward political demands, but they were built, mainly to changes in local administration, state and party nomenclature.
In August 1989 the conference representatives of the strike committee of mines and associations Dnipropetrovsk, Donetsk. Lugansk and Rostov regions were formed Regional Union strike committee of Donetsk coal basin (RSSKD).
In July 1991, despite the anti- Ministry of Defence of the USSR, was Congress army officers –citizens of Ukraine. Its 320 delegates representing all the regions of the republic.
Members of the Congress almost unanimously called for. that Ukraine had its own armed forces. Some delegates here But, at the Congress, swore "Serve the Ukrainian National Army. Established Union Officers favor by parliament of the armed Forces of Ukraine, for the return home of those officers who are nationals Ukraine, but are deployed on the territory of other republics.
Democratic forces in Ukraine and were conditions of pressure of official agencies and authorities.
Party-state nomenclature, seeing the society in updating threat to its interests and privileged position, strengthened control over the media, actively conducted antyruhivsku propaganda, tried to Disconnect the Ukrainian intelligentsia, make disorder in the democratic forces.
The Communists, who passed on democratic position or informal groups supported or sympathized with them. felt pressured by senior party leadership, they even excluded from party, had at work.
In August 1988 Presidium Parliament SSR adopted Decree "On Liability for violations of the organization and holding meetings, rallies, street processions and demonstrations. Power testified that she tries to administratively terminate or limit the democratic processes in the republic. By default decree envisaged warnings and fines, civil penalties, and corrective work imprisonment.
In Ukraine, were formed groups of special police (OMON – for Russian language acronym), which was used to disperse the rallies and demonstrations. Zaprovadzhuvalosya joint patrol police unit and military units.
At the end of 1988 on Western Ukraine is aggravated by movement legalization of the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church (Church).
Active in this area spread "Committee to Protect Church" led І.Gel. He was supported Pope, He addressed to Gorbachev with a letter. Gained significant resonance few months starvation Greek Catholic believers in Moscow on the Arbat. Starving demanded the authorities withdraw the ban on the Church.
In January 1989 first time postwar period in the court St. George's Cathedral in Lviv was Greek Catholic celebration to commemorate the Act of Union of Ukrainian lands in January 1919 Greek Catholics expressed their disagreement with "Russification of religious life, were for independence from the Moscow Patriarchate and the "A sovereign Christian cathedral of the Ukrainian state. "
January 26, 1990 hierarchy Greek Catholic Church convened Synod declared that legalization Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church. Lands in the West began legally operate about 1500 parishes.
At the same time reviving and Ukrainian autocephalous Orthodox Church (UAOC) allowed the Soviets in the 30 years. In February, 1989 in Kiev already working legally Committee for restoration UAOC. Its leaders their statements, stressed the commitment of the church towards revival Ukrainian people.
4. Law of the Ukrainian SSR Language
As a result, distortion of national policy of the Soviet party-state leadership and Russification Ukrainian language was driven out almost all spheres of society. According to the census of 1989 with 51.4 million people in Ukraine were Ukrainian 37.4 million, are considered native Ukrainian language only 87,7%.
In April 1987 Ministry Education submitted the government data on the status of national schools, which became known public.
Operating in Ukraine in 1915 thousand Ukrainian-language schools. It made up 75% from all schools. However, in 4500 Russian-language schools (which accounted for less than 20% of the total number) studied more than half of all students. In Kiev 300 thousand students enrolled in Ukrainian only 70 thousand in the 1988/89 academic year, almost no more Ukrainian-language schools Donetsk, Chernihiv, Lugansk, Odessa, Kharkiv, Mykolayiv.
In 1988, books published Ukrainian, constituted only 18% by name and by circulation –only 3% of all books published in Ukraine. Political literature that published in the republic Ukrainian, was 34,7%, Russian 60,0%, Science and Technology respectively 12.8% and 86.0%, artistic and educational – 38.3 and 40.0%.
У higher education training conducted mainly Russian, as in many – exclusively in Russian.
This situation caused displeasure public in different regions of Ukraine intensified movement for revival Ukrainian language.
Summer 1988 in Lviv there Regional Organization Company name native language. Shevchenko. About during the same period started working club "Native word in Poltava, Community them. Yavornitskogo D. Dnipropetrovsk, Club fans at the Union of Ukrainian Writers Ukraine et al.
Representatives of these organizations launched a national association – Society Ukrainian Language Fellowship. Shevchenko (from autumn 1991 – Ukrainian Society "Enlightenment"). At the inaugural Society Conference in February 1989 along with Ukrainian speakers and Representatives other nationalities. also supported the development Ukrainian language. Writer О.Burakovsky, Jew nationality, said: "This is too –our mother earth, mother-mother " and his There words were greeted standing.
The company acted for the provision of Ukrainian language status State, by free development of the native language of representatives of all nationalities living in Ukraine. Chairman of the Company was selected Д.Pavlichko.
Under pressure from the national-democratic forces of Parliament in October 1989 adopted Law of the Ukrainian SSR "On language ".
Society accepts it as a sign that "Realignment finally reached Ukraine. The law recognized that "Ukrainian language is a key factor of Ukrainian national consciousness people.
Authorities assumed the republic commitment to the Ukrainian language status of the state, promote the comprehensive development spiritual creative forces of the Ukrainian people. It was noted that Ukrainian language along with Russian has become the language of international communication in the republic.
Legislative recognition of the existence of Ukraine bilingualism was at that time a peculiar compromise between national-democratic forces that demanded recognition of Ukrainian state and official authorities, that sought to preserve the status quo.
It also involved the creation Republic of guarantees essential for development and utilization other languages nationalities banned privileges or restrictions of civil rights on sign language, linguistic discrimination.
According to law, within five years Ukrainian language was replaced by Russian in public institutions.
However, the real mechanism of control over Implementation of the Law "On Language" was not envisaged that significantly slowed the pace its implementation in practice.
LAW OF THE UKRAINIAN SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLIC "ON LANGUAGES IN UKRAINIAN SSR" October 28, 1989 (Excerpt)
... Ukrainian SSR Ukrainian language provides status of the state to promote the full spiritual development creative forces Ukrainian people, Guarantee his sovereign nationalState future.
Language ... interpersonal communication among citizens of the Ukrainian SSR inalienable right of citizens themselves.
Article 2. ... Ukrainian SSR provides a comprehensive development and functioning of Ukrainian language in all spheres of public life.
Article 3. ... Ukrainian SSR creates the necessary conditions for the development and use of languages of other nationalities in Republic.
In the public, public bodies, enterprises, institutions and organizations located in places of residence of the majority of citizens of other nationalities (Cities, districts, rural councils, villages, their set) can be used along із Ukrainian and their national language.
Inquiries to document
1. How the law defines the status of Ukrainian language? Or running, you think of the law today?
2. As reflected in the Law of Linguistic Rights of National Minorities Ukraine?
5. Important period of struggle for sovereignty and independence of Ukraine.
Ukrainian Political activity society in the second sex 80 years developed sufficiently ambiguous.
On the one hand, feeling the resistance of party-state apparatus. his attempts to stop the democratic process and limit the other – observed growth of national consciousness different population, consolidation of democratic forces.
The political opposition is vivid tendency to become deepening of the democratic movement, expansion its social base of opposition to the official authorities.
Democratic movement developed under slogans of national revival in Ukraine. Significant winning national-democratic forces was the recognition of national status Ukrainian language.
Evidence of growth of national identity became Democrats claim to sovereignty and establishment of state independence of Ukraine.
A common feature of this period was that the growing political activity of Ukrainian vidbuvayusya society against the growth of the crisis in the sector, deterioration of social situation population.
Questions and Tasks
1. What are you known representatives of the creative intellectuals who were active у social and political life of Ukraine in the second half of the 80's
2. What socio-political organization, among other Task its activities set the goal of elimination of "white spots" of Ukrainian story?
3. What informal first published in Ukraine you know?
4. When was Ukrainian Helsinki?
5. When held Constituent Assembly of People's Movement of Ukraine which documents were taken?
6. What are the objectives set for itself in Ukrainian Helsinki?
7. Why the movement for the revival of Ukrainian language came political?
8. Identify the chronological sequence of events:
- Convention Army Officers – citizens of Ukraine;
- Adoption of the Law SSR "On Language";
- Constituent Assembly NAO;
- Declaration Legalization Church.
9. Name of rising political activism society.
10. Give a general description of the democratic process in Ukraine at the turn of 80-90's.
11. Discover the evolution of the political demands of the People's Movement.
12. What is the significance of the Law of the USSR "On Language"?
13. Why do you think the development of the opposition movement in Ukraine occurred more slowly than in other Soviet republics?
14. What are the ways to implement the Law on Language "You б offered? Is relevant, in your opinion, the question of development of Ukrainian language today?
15. In your opinion, what led democratic kiptsi movement in 80 years it was the intelligentsia? Give your point view.