Getman Pilip Orlik CONSTITUTION OF UKRAINE AND ITS
- Philip Orlik - first hetman in-exile - headed the powerful Ukrainian political emigration in Western Europe.
- "Pact and Constitution, laws and liberties Zaporizhia Army" - a document that outlined several ways the struggle for liberation the next generation of Ukrainian, while implementing the state's aspirations in exile Hetman Orlyk.
- Orlyk - sample service to the Fatherland, when its altar and brought tangible benefits, and family happiness, and life itself.
CHRONOLOGY OF EVENTS
1710, April 5
Election Orlyk Hetman in exile. Adoption of the Constitution P. Orlik.
Hike Cossack detachments P. Orlik Right Bank Ukraine.
Prutsko march of the Russian army of Peter I.
Prutsko peace treaty.
Foundation Oleshkovsky Sich Cossacks on the lands of the Crimean Khanate.
Nishtadtskyy peace treaty between Russia and Sweden. The end of the war.
Philip Orlik (1672-1742) came from an old Czech family. During the Hussite Wars ancestors left Orlik Czech Republic and found themselves in Poland. The future hetman was born October 11 1672 near free. When one year old boy, killed his father. Therefore, a charge of raising a son - the Ukrainian Orthodox shlyahtyanka. Mother cares Philip got a good education, learning at first in the Jesuit College in Vilnius, and later when the family moved to Ukraine - Kyiv-Mohyla Academy. With its unusual ability, he has proved himself one of the best students. Orlik was very fond of rhetoric and was a good speaker, wrote poems that were published in the late XVII century. Deeply interested in philosophy and literature, fluent in Ukrainian, Polish, Slavonic, Bulgarian, Serbian, Latin, Italian, German, Swedish, Old- New Greek and probably Turkish. Naturally, and embraced the position in 1699 Hetman OFFICEyariyi, he quickly overcame official steps and soon (in 1706) became general secretary. Orlik was utayemnychenyy in all cases Mazepa, supported him during the rebellion antymoskovskoho went with him into exile, by the end staying true to the idea of Ukraine's liberation.
ELECTION PYLYP ORLYK Getman in exile
- After the death of Ivan Mazepa and the Cossacks, who went with him into exile, was left without a leader. , The need to elect a new Hetman.
- Although nominated applicant for Hetman government almost no one raised any objection, but with elections due to unfavorable situation delayed six months.
- April 5, 1710 in Atlanta (Moldavia), a Cossack Council. Was elected Hetman Mazepa's closest associates - the secretary general of his government Orlyk.
- This event launched a new page in the history of the Ukrainian liberation movement, because has never elected hetman not abroad. Philip Orlik headed the first powerful Ukrainian political emigration in Western Europe.
- cohesive forces around him from abroad opposed despotism of Russian autocracy.
APPROVAL "Pact and Constitution, laws and liberties Zaporizhia Army"
- During Cossack Council April 5, 1710 approved the document "Pact and Constitution, laws and liberties Zaporizhia Army (later called the document" Orlyk Constitution "and" Bezan ").
- basis of "The Covenant and the constitution ..." was an agreement between the hetman and the Cossacks, which acted on behalf of the Ukrainian people, the mutual rights and obligations.
This is seen in
- approved a document from the traditional hetman's articles were based on agreements between the hetman and the monarch-protector.
- first time the newly elected Hetman had signed a formal agreement with its voters, clearly stating the conditions under which it receives power.
- addition, the paper obhruntovuvavsya political system of Ukraine. That is why he is considered first Ukrainian constitution.
Orlyk Constitution of Contents
document consisted of the introduction and 16 articles.
main provisions of the articles:
- proclaimed independence of Ukraine from Muscovy and the Commonwealth;
- obumovlyuvalysya coattails Swedish king and an alliance with the Crimean Khanate;
- territory of Ukraine is determined in accordance with the contract Zborowski 1649;
- Cossacks returned to their traditional territory in the Dnieper;
- hetman formed at the General Council of the legislature, consisting of general officers, colonels, members elected from each regiment and of delegates from the Cossacks;
- council met three times a year - at Christmas, Easter, Intercession;
- cases of injustice and guilt hetman officers examined the General Court, to which the hetman had no right to interfere;
- treasury and property subject to general treasurers for the maintenance of certain land intended Hetman;
Elective was defined
- colonels, captains of their subsequent approval by Hetman;
- special commission was to carry out the audit of public lands utilized by the officers, and duties of the population; Cossacks hetman was to protect all people from excessive taxes and duties, to help widows and orphans Cossack.
Ukraine proclaimed an independent republic, the Constitution Orlyk became the highest ranks of contemporary political thought, not only in Ukraine but also in Europe in general, because no country at that time had no such documents.
Constitution has limited the rights of the hetman, was intended to create a representative body - the General Council. It was laid the foundation of the principle of separation of powers on the executive and judicial branches, implemented by elected positions. Such forward-looking features of the anticipated future directions of development of democratic states.
ORLIK ANTYMOSKOVSKOYI COALITION BUILDING
- Activities Orlyk Hetman post was aimed at creating a coalition antymoskovskoyi.
- May 10, 1710 approved the election of Charles XII Orlik Hetman.
- the same day, signed the new agreement between Ukraine and Sweden. It potverdzhuvalysya guarantees the independence and autonomy of Ukraine. Sweden obliged to provide defense and territory integrity.
Hike Orlik Right Bank Ukraine in 1711
During the year
Orlik managed to create antymoskovsku coalition of Sweden, the Crimean Khanate, Turkey, the government Orlik, as well as those of Polish forces, who supported the Stanislaus Leszczy
- January 31, 1711 squadrons of Cossacks led by Kost Med under the supervision of Philip Orlik went to Bender.
- way they were joined by Polish and Tatar troops. Allied troops have move quickly on the Right Bank.
- Ukrainian population Orlik met with joy, without a fight It may appear at the city. Right Bank shelves, except Bilotserkivskyi acknowledged Orlik for Hetman and passed on his side.
- Statements against Moscow administration began in Left Bank Ukraine.
- Left Bank Hetman Ivan Orlik Skoropadskyi sent to council, but was defeated.
- late March, troops came under Orlik White Church strongest fortress on the Right Bank, and surrounded her, but soon because of the lack of heavy guns needed for the attack, were forced to retreat.
- determined the fate of the campaign and approaching Moscow's troops and treacherous actions have long been uncertain Tatar ally. In late April, Orlik and Cossacks had to return to Bandar.
- According to the plan of joint action against Moscow in late January 1711 with the khan 50000th troop left the Crimea and moved along the lower Dnieper River, then returned to Kharkov.
- not meeting resistance, the Tatars captured Slobozhanshchina however, came to Kharkov, Horde suddenly retreated and returned to Crimea.
For the Horde
- liberation campaign has once again brought to Ukrainian lands robbery, fire: thousand Ukrainian captured.
Prutsko CAMPAIGN AND PETER
- spring of 1711 the Moscow counteroffensive began. Tsar Peter I declared war on Turkey.
- Moscow army went through Ukrainian territory on Moldova.
- entered the territory of the Right-Bank Ukraine, the royal army on the orders of Peter the destroyed towns and villages, local people were tortured, thousands of people turned out in Left Bank Ukraine.
- In June 1711 the main body of the Moscow army, which was headed by Peter himself, along with detachments ally - Moldovan owner - came to KSS.
- In early July came to the area Falchi Turkish-Tatar army. 8-9 July was the decisive battle.
- Army found itself in an environment threatened her utter defeat.
- command handled the case: weak Turkish army chief has received a large bribe and agreed to talks.
Prutsko peace treaty in 1711 and its implications for Ukraine
- Negotiations between Muscovy and Turkey concluded a peace treaty. It was signed July 12, 1711 on the river Prut near KSS.
Under the agreement
- Moscow government pledged to allocate part of Turkey the Ukrainian lands, including the Azov with the adjacent territory.
- Moscow promised to destroy his newly built fortress - Taganrog, Stone backwater on the Dnieper Novobohorodytsku fortress at the mouth, the Samara (now within Dnipropetrovsk).
- Moreover, the Moscow government has the obligation not to interfere in Polish affairs, denied Right-Bank Ukraine and Zaporozhye.
- As for the Left Bank, the article about him was so ambiguously worded that each side could interpret it in their own way.
- Prutsko peace treaty was to allow Turkey to Moscow to withdraw its military troops from artillery and encamped with Moldova.
- Prutsko peace was not profitable for Moscow. Vyrvavshys of the environment, Peter violated the terms of the contract.
- Orlik take steps to persuade the Turkish government not to approve the contractual documents as long as Moscow does not fulfill all obligations and waives all Ukraine. However, the Turks under the pressure of England and the Netherlands have ratified the treaty.
- However, when ratifying a peace treaty Prutskiy in Istanbul, the Turkish government forced Peter urgently required to meet on the Sea of Azov and Taganrog, and start the withdrawal of troops from Poland and those lands of Right Bank Ukraine, which belonged to Poland for the contract in 1686
- March 5, 1712 was issued firman (decree) of Sultan that on the Right-Bank Ukraine and Sich distributed power Orlik.
- Next month, Turkey signed a treaty with Moscow: left bank of Kyiv and its suburbs remained at Moscow State.
- Prutskiy contract as such heavy blow to Orlik and his associates. After all, Ukraine remains divided over the Left Bank continued to dominate Moscow.
- Orlik on Right Bank of Ukraine, received by the sultan's firman, through the intransigence of Poland was too elusive: two years later, in April 1714 between Turkey and Poland have signed an agreement under which Pravoberezhna Ukraine remained in Poland.
So hope Orlyk the rapid liberation of Ukraine failed. He himself remained in exile Hetman, nor patronage because the Swedish king, nor the alliance in Crimea, no recognition of the owner of Right-Bank Ukraine from Turkey, no support Sich troops vtoruvaly his way to the Ukraine.
ORLYK ATTEMPT TO CREATE COALITION ANTYMOSKOVSKU
- In June 1714 Orlik had to go with Bender to Western Europe.
- At the invitation of Karl XII and Philip Orlik part of the officers moved to Sweden.
- In 1720 he moved to Germany and then to France.
- From 1722 to move to Turkey, where he spent the last 20 years.
- And even where the Orlik it not for a moment forgot about primary objective of the activity , which saw the creation antymoskovskoyi coalition . Getman argued that only with the help of other countries can liberate Ukraine from the yoke of the Russian empire and unite all Ukrainian lands into a strong state.
- seeking support of European countries such as England, France, German states, Poland, Sweden, he had sent letters to many government-A letter, breaking them in the Ukrainian question.
- Philip Orlik not missed any opportunity to touch the subject of Ukraine: either in direct communication with Charles XII, Louis XIV, August II, Stanislaw Leszczynski, and Sultan khans, or meeting with top ministers of the most authoritative.