Remember: 1. What changes have occurred in the relationship land tenure and peasants Left and Sloboda Ukraine in the second half of XVIII century.? 2. As influence policy development for the autocracy of the Russian economy in Ukraine XVIII century.? 3. What is Industrial Revolution? When and how she started in Europe? What were its consequences?
Nineteenth century. was the time when result of changes initiated by the Industrial Revolution in Europe happening of industrial society. The shift in Western Europe influenced the economic development of Ukraine Dnieper. During the first half of the nineteenth century. on these grounds the process of gaining new strength market economy and the decline of serfdom. However, he performed in difficult conditions under various, sometimes contradictory factors. The big difference was development in different regions of the Ukrainian lands. A kind of "test ground "the emergence of new economic relations was the Southern Ukraine, where large scale use of free-entered the workforce. Gradually South vtyahuvav the orbit of market relations and not only the Right Bank Left Bank Ukraine and other regions of the empire, where old feudal relations rule. In the opposite direction completely developed at this time agriculture Right Bank, where the dominant forced labor of peasants-serfs. Situation Ukrainian peasants, serfs in some farms plantations resembled the Right Bank slavery in the southern United States. The situation when the market economy coexisted with free "labor and forced labor, as evidenced by U.S. experience, could persist long enough. Only transformation of forced labor on an obstacle for further industrialization and a resulting slowdown in economic development forced the ruling elite to resort to reform outdated industrial relations.
The basis of the economy Dnieper Ukraine in the first half of the nineteenth century. was agriculture, which had about 95% at the beginning and 89% of the population in the Middle Ages.
In the first half of the nineteenth century. on Ukrainian lands dominated private landlordism, which took about 75% of the land. However, the size of the land holdings were different: the Right Ukraine dominated large farm, in Left Bank and Southern Ukraine - small estates. Main manufacturer agricultural products to farmers, which was divided into two main Groups:
· landlords' peasants, Or serfs, were the personal dependence on landlords and were attached to their estates. Squirearchy farmers numerically dominated provinces Right-bank Ukraine;
· state peasants belonged to the treasury and officially called "free village resident. They were personally free. The role of the landowner for the category of farmers has played the State to whom they had servage pay, or when their estates together with government leased (This form of exploitation of farmers existed on the Right Bank). State peasants prevailed in the South and the Left.
The main forms of exploitation Peasants were boon or vidrobitkova rent, and servage in forms and money natural (food) rents. Prevailing form of exploitation of the landlords peasant farmers and government on the Right Bank in the first half of the nineteenth century. was boon. Although the law in 1797 formally limited its 3 days a week, real life she reached 4-6 days. The landowners avoided the law by system of regular school activities, when serfdom was given one day such a task ("class"), which it is possible there was a two to three days.
And farmers suffered from shortage of arable land. Due to increased demand for agricultural products, increasing the number of landed estates meant for larger estates holder profits, so the size of peasant holdings continuously decreased. Practiced lords of manors and their transfer to farmers' misyachynu "when farmers in permanent serfdom received monthly maintenance in kind unless sufficient for napivzhebratskoho vegetation.
The spread of serfdom and obezzemelennya peasants were concerned with acquiring landowner economy trade character. Tovaryzatsiya production in the feudal system led to increased non-economic methods of regulation of production (labor without interest employee) and securing the extensive development of the economy (through involvement additional resources - land and workers).
Strengthening exploitation of peasants landlords allegedly achieved their goal and increased their own profits. But at the same time impoverishment of the major manufacturers and the decline of their economies, lack of peasant serfs better incentives to work, inability to use the new equipment made economic prosperity and landowners estates brief brought closer to their inevitable decline. Finally, after a brief period of prosperity in 30-40-ies feudal economy found itself in the face of crisis. There which used "free labor, the situation was opposite. Economic regulation of production methods (employee interest in the results of its labor) made it possible to intensive farming methods (development management without additional resources by improving labor Peasants and quality of work performed).
Some examples of diffusion of new management methods were the Left, but they became the largest distribution in southern Ukraine.
During the first half Nineteenth century. in the production process tovaryzatsiyi were drawn and farming, resulted in the stratification of peasants. However, the existence panschynnoho economy kept the process. Rapidly bundle was among state peasants and the Left Bank of the South. Farmers-owners in Ekaterinoslavskoy province concentrated in the hands of 18% private land. Some appear wealthy farmers who owned or rented 100 and more acres of land.
The process of separation took place landowners among the peasants. They were allowed to buy land in the name of his landlord, establish an enterprise with agricultural products processing, use free "labor. However, their legal status remained unchanged, and landowner could ever take away all their property.
From the Writings on Kriposnyi condition "Ukrainian philanthropist Gregory Galana
"The farmers will refrain from purchasing through the natural uncertainty in the strength of the property, acquired by hiding them transforming it into dead capital, and landowners, for their part, are better spender purchased them as something that can easily turn back and pay due Darova work. "
Judge: What confirms negative impact of the existence of serfdom on the economy?
The first half of the nineteenth century. was qualitative changes in the era of industrial development Dnieper Ukraine concerned with the industrial revolution, which began on these lands in the 30's The main contents of the Industrial Revolution was the transition from factory to factory. Manufactory of Ukrainian lands within the Russian Empire were companies based on forced labor of serfs. So transition to factory industry, which was based on free- Labour was also the processes of destruction and feudal serfdom relations.
In addition to qualitative occurred and quantitative change: 1825 Dnieper in Ukraine there were about 650 industrial enterprises, 1861 it was already 2330. At the beginning of the century manufactory founded that landlords who have had this for money, workers, peasants who worked on them for free. Technical improvements and vehicles are hardly used because landlords Manufactory it did not make sense. Why landlord had to spend money to purchase some machine that would perform the work of 5.6 workers after they have worked Nothing? But machines are not only squeezed manual labor workers, but also produced quality products, more and less cost. Therefore, refusing purchase of machinery, factory owner serfdom pryrikav their business on a gradual decline. For example, in Ryashkivskiy Cloth Prince Yusupov manufactory in Poltava most used tools and tools were manual or craft. Prince himself believed that the costs of overseas machine is throwing money into the air as he and so enough serfs work for the factory.
However, gradually began to appear New entrepreneurs who had money but were not nobles and serfs did not have to unpaid labor. The need to pay employees a wage for their work by forcing Entrepreneurs look for ways to reducing costs for the production from the use of machines that zastupaly workers. Gradually, it turned also that, unlike the peasant serfs of landlords manufactory free-lance workers are interested in their work and therefore work better. Because the number of companies that used free- work has increased: in 1825 they worked 25% of workers, and 1861 - almost 74%.
Particularly rapid process occurred Industrial Revolution and the conversion of the free-labor cloth industry. Since 1805 to 1859 number of woolen enterprises increased from 27 to 160, while in the landlords at the time there were only About 30 enterprises. The main center of the cloth industry Naddniprianshchyna Klyntsi village was in Chernihiv, where in 1860 there were already 9 cloth factory.
The first cars for new businesses imported from abroad, mainly through the port of Odessa. But in 40-50-ies enterprises producing machinery and industrial equipment have in Kiev Yekaterinoslav Romny, near Lugano and in other areas. In 1861 Dnieper in Ukraine there were at least 20 mechanical plants and many mechanical workshops.
Since the formation of plant industry was the emergence of new social classes: businessmen and industrial workers. Among the owners of factories, most were Russians, but occurred and Ukrainian, such as the famous Symyrenka and Yahnenko.
Ukrainian pioneer SME bank Ukraine historians believe the family of Yahnenko Cherkasy region. Patriarch, Michael Yahnenko through trade redeemed from serfdom himself and his entire family. In the 20-30's Nineteenth century. his sons Stephen, Kindrat, Terentiy their sister and husband Theodore rented Simirenko landlords mills in bold and Uman, were wholesale trade livestock and meat. They founded the family trade and entrepreneurial firm and take Yahnenko Simirenko "the leader of which was Kindrat M.. 40th he Nineteenth century. were sometimes of their firm, which knew not only in the Russian Empire, but also abroad.
Brothers and Yahnenko Symyrenka won fame as the first Ukrainian owners of sugar factories. In 1843 They first built in Ukraine and the Russian Empire, sugar-refinery near Mliyeva. Unprecedented spectacle for its time was the main sugar mill seven-story plant. At the same time founded a small repair shops, which then grown to become one of the best technical equipment in mechanical plants Russian Empire. The plant has been brought from abroad most advanced machines, which worked free-lance workers. Plant produced equipment for refineries edge. Later were built first ships that transported grain Dnipro - "Ukrainian" and "Yaroslav".
The company was proud to village factory workers. Next to the barracks for the workers were steam baths, a hospital pharmacy, church, library, shops, schools and even theater.
Founders of the firm were people who always adhered to Christian moral principles. During starvation 1830 for a long time, they fed thousands of poor farmers. The company is constantly committed donations to charitable work. Workers trust entrepreneurs and invested their savings in cash the company, adding its circulating capital. Due to lack of credit crisis and the sugar industry in the 80's Nineteenth century. firm self-destruct. Before that it fully paid off all its creditors.
The process of staff industrial workers was slow pace, since it prevented the existence of serfdom. The sources of its formation were improvised state peasants, devastated urban artisans, rural home workers and released on servage landlords farmers (some of their earnings in the factory as they gave money servage landowner). The situation of most workers was very difficult. Day sometimes reached 15 hours, wages were meager, and the conditions of life - just staggering. Many workers become crippled and die due to lack of safety and health care.
Thus, the Industrial Revolution is on initial stage of development has made significant changes in structure and character Industry Dnieper Ukraine, but its further development required was the elimination of serfdom, which is noticeably more restrained development society.
During the first half Nineteenth century. changed the place and role of cities in social development Naddniprianshchyna.
Population (thousand persons)
Urban population Naddniprianshchyna increased threefold during that time. Especially fast developing cities of the South, where this while their population has increased in 4.5 times. But compared to Western Europe's percentage of urban population in the Ukrainian lands remained fairly low, typical of pre-industrial society. Cities were first administrative centers, and few have educational and cultural cells.
By the Russian Empire legal status and structure of Ukrainian cities experienced historic changes and became similar to other imperial cities. In 1831 canceled Magdeburg right for all cities Dnieper except Kyiv, but in 1835 it eliminated and here. Instead, created municipal councils headed by mayors, activities are controlled by the imperial administration. Changed and social face of the city that lost and gained national General- Fig. More significant place in the structure of the Russian urban population occupied bureaucracy and military. The Russian government has promoted and supported the relocation to Ukrainian city of Russian merchants, wealthy from Ukrainian. This they were occupying leading positions in trade and squeezed the traditional economic Ukrainian position. Only in small county towns of Ukrainian citizenship, engaged not only in trade and craft, but also in agriculture, preserves its advantages and hence the nature of Ukrainian cities. In cities and towns in Right-Bank Ukraine trade and craft, as before, conducted before the representatives of Jewish and Polish population. Measures to Russification exposed here to persistent resistance. The features of cities in the Ukraine was the international composition of their population. The largest city in the whole Naddniprianshchyna 1861 was Odessa (116 thousand inhabitants), which due to its status of free port (open port right of free trade) became centers of business and trade European values.
In the first half of the nineteenth century. prevailing agricultural specialization of some regions Dnieper Ukraine. On the Left Bank near the grain grew tobacco and hemp. Right-bank Ukraine was the area of winter wheat. In the South developed mainly fine-fleece sheep breeding. The deepening of specialization promoted development of domestic trade.
Goods that were made in Ukraine - bread, sugar, tobacco, wool, cloth, leather, etc. - sold at fairs and in facilities and trade - in the bazaars and shops.
Fairs were organized at any time of the year, but most occurred in January and February and June-August when soil were the most suitable ways to transport goods. In the first quarter Nineteenth century. Dnieper occurred annually in more than 2 thousand fair, 4 thousand throughout the Russian Empire.
Big fairs were, particularly in Kharkov, Sumy, Romny, Santiago Krolevets, Kiev, Kremenchug, Nizhyn Starodub, Berdichev, Elizabethgrad, Yekaterinoslav Odessa. This brought goods from all over the Dnieper Ukraine and other Russian provinces Empire as well as from abroad. At fairs led to wholesale, concluded contracts for a variety of delivery between the landlords and merchants.
In Kiev, at the hem, acting with 1797 Contract Fair. On the "Contracts" as they called it, visited annually 10-15 thousand people, and trade turnover reached 2.6 million rubles. These merchants came not only from Dnieper, and also from Russia, Siberia, the Caucasus, Venice, Poland, England, Austria, France, Turkey, Germany. At the fair selling various commodities: agricultural products, sugar, textiles, tableware, halantereyu, jewelry, furniture, paintings, books and more. The fair turned into a holiday so nailed to Kyiv many guests, including landowners, foreign actors. Arranged points concerts and performances, even performed Famous Italian opera. "Contracts" retain their value and nationwide throughout the imperial center Nineteenth century.
There were both general and specialized fairs they sold grain, horses, goats and more. Country fair had a different character: here dominated by peasant products and goods necessary for agricultural labor. Regular shapes in rural fairs were fence-traders.
In the Dnieper into the Empire to market goods industries. In the early 50-ies third All textile products directed at Ukrainian fairs which was about 90% of sales of textile products. Instead, raw materials for Russian companies supplied with the Ukrainian lands. The result was decline Ukrainian textiles (including cloth) industry in the middle Nineteenth century.
As part of trade in the Dnieper were rural and small town bazaars, where there was trade in industrial and agricultural goods. Gathered bazaars several times a week or daily.
Cargo transported as still underground ways, oxen and horses, and water. Constructing Chumakov railroads played a major role in transporting all types of cargo, because river transport depended on the season. Chumak dopravlyaly grain rolls to Black Sea ports, and thence transported salt, fish and other goods. In 40-50-ies Nineteenth century. Chumakov carrying an average of 800 wagons of cargo annually. Salt of an Naddniprianshchyna they were imported to about 8 million pounds. Rich Chumakov launched in the future dynasty Ukrainian entrepreneurs.
Executive Officer of Poltava treasurer of the Chamber of Nikolai Arandatenko organization Milky Crafts
"Those that carry viznykuvannya salt from the Crimea and Bessarabia, as well as fish from the Crimea and the Don, called Chumak. Great height, physical strength, manly features and a long bunch of hair, entangled with ear (in Little Russian wig or herring), movements that indicate muscle strength, posture of a dignified expression of self in the face, pride with silent joy, clothing - trousers are too wide, and suites narozhryst Thumb high hat - are distinctive features Chumak.
This class, which climbed a special conditions during viznykuvannya, it differs from other Little Russians ...
Viznykuvannya carry their Chumakov usually drive rolls (in Little truckload), consisting of several dozen carts (in the Milky parovytsi). Rolls, or wagon, has a commander who, on behalf of the whole rolls employed for viznykuvannya, takes profits and makes layout with everyone. This company called them artel. Each Chumak in his artels subject to strict sense of all the conditions and if departure from them is punished and even vyhanyayetsya with Artel. Ataman solves all dispute finally, he appoints all the penalty and gang certainly obey him ...
In the same patrol chumak exposes itself to every hardships, always sober, temperate in food: millet porridge with fat or dumplings, pieces of bread and salt - these are all his food. On the road with no before money chumak limited. By the end viznykuvannya money Artel all stored in the chieftain ...
Viznykuvannya beginning of their early spring and lasts until autumn. Chumakov winter's trip did not go. Mooring at night, Chumakov builds their wagons in a convoy, a military order ".
Judge: 1. What looks and everyday Chumakov reminiscent of Cossack life habits? 2. As was organized chumak trade? 3. What evidence of use in the Milky FIELDS free-labor compensation according to the work of each worker?
Dnieper occupied important place in foreign trade of the Russian Empire. Many Ukrainian land provided 78% of grain exports and 55% export of wool from the empire. Ukrainian wheat production was 81% Farming, which was exported through the Black and Azov ports. Played a significant role in the importation of these ports (import) foreign goods to empire. The vast majority of imports were luxury goods, and only in years of industrial revolution has given way to much of their machinery and technical equipment. Customs services provided enormous benefits that come from the imperial treasury. Yes, only in 1825 Customs port of Odessa has received more than 3 million rubles duties on foreign goods.
The situation of peasants who were most of the people Dnieper Ukraine, was of importance for social stability in the region. The Russian government in the first half Nineteenth century., Made several attempts to change the status of farmers.
In 1803 issued a decree about "free farmers", according to which for the possibility of dismissal serfdom as individual families and entire villages by joint decision of the landowners and peasants. However, this document in Dnieper Ukraine, as in other regions Empire, the situation has not changed significantly. As peasants, serfs were the main labor for the lords of manors, lose them, they did not want. Farmers who tried to escape, and had no money to pay for his redemption landlords.
The Russian government saw that number of performances increases peasant, but was noncommittal on decisive action in land issue because it could cause resentment of the Russian nobility. More government acted decisively in the provinces of Right Bank Ukraine, where the landowners were mainly Poles.
After the suppression of the Polish Uprising 1830-1831 biennium on the right bank of Ukraine was carried out forfeiture to the state in the estates of landowners who participated in rebellion. The fortress of these estates was transferred to the state government peasants. Now these public estates with peasants leased. But the activity tenants only aggravated exploitation of peasants. In 1839-1841 he Government made and reform of state peasants, as a result of which likviduvalasya boon and lease of public estates. Farmers had to pay cash servage, the size of which depended on their income. The reform helped create the conditions development of processes for separation of property among the peasants and their involvement in market relations.
In 1842 adopted "Regulations on the owe farmers. So called peasants who are obliged by the agreement with landowners, who sacked their land, pay him or servage cultivate his fields. Having signed the agreement, the landlord could no longer break it and take away land or resize handling. The situation was good, but it could conclude landowner only by choice and because it does not have distribution.
The next attempt to solve the peasant problem of the imperial government made in the 1847-1848 biennium in the right bank of Ukraine Lithuania and Belarus. This region was chosen not accidentally. First, because demand for grain is increased exploitation of peasants, which had caused periodic peasant unrest. Second, growth in Poland national liberation movement of the imperial government tried to attract to their side Ukrainian peasants, speaking from his defender bourgeois tyranny.
In 1847-1848 he There were introduced the "Rules of estates in accordance with established inventory, or "inventory policies. They were drawn inventory descriptions of the estates determining the size of peasant holdings and obligations of sizes, which for them vidroblyalysya peasants. By agreeing to "inventory rule, both parties have could not change them. In these very moderate, and those that did not solve the problem abolition of serfdom major initiatives was that serfdom finally vvodylosya at least some in the legal field. Serfs are not considered as living tools, and became a legal party, one of the parties to the transaction.
Introducing "Inventory rules" caused resentment of landowners, who saw in them too much government intervention in their cases. Numerous violations of these rules led to new peasant performances. Generally, however, the situation has not threatened the stability of imperial power. To decisive measures to eliminate serfdom Russian government failed only when vtoropav that its existence is the reason behind the Empire of Western industrialized countries.
1. What were the features Naddniprianshchyna economic development in the first half of the nineteenth century.?
2. What are the processes taking place in agricultural development?
3. When and how began Industry Revolution?
4. How does the existence of feudal serfdom system prevented the establishment of an industrial society?
5. Based on analysis of of "Brothers and Yahnenko Symyrenka" identify which lines were first characterized Ukrainian entrepreneurs.
6. What changes have occurred in legal status of Ukrainian cities and devices?
7. Define the role played trade in development Naddniprianshchyna.
8. Make a table of "Economic development Dnieper Ukraine in the first half of the nineteenth century. "scheme:
9. Explain what was the attitude imperial elite to serfdom?
10. Describe the measures that Russian government tried to solve the peasant question in the first half Nineteenth century. Why they did not satisfy either landlords or peasants?