Remember: 1. When and how the Russian government abolished Zaporizhzhya in January? 2. How has fate that stayed under the authority of the Russian Empire after the liquidation of the Sich? 3. As was established Danubian Sich? What was the situation of the Cossacks in the Turkish possessions? 4. What role was played by Zaporozhye Ukrainian Sich in life for her years existence?
Two branches of felled tree "- so called historians fate after the dissolution of the Russian Cossacks Government Zaporizhzhya Sich. One branch remained in the lands of the Russian Empire and was forced to explore uninhabited land between the Sea of Azov andr.Kuban; Friend - found refuge in the lands Turkish sultan, which established a new Danube Delta in January. The tragedy of these detached from their native land people and deepening the fact that during the constant wars between Russia and Turkey, they had to go brother to brother, kill Coreligionists to someone else's business.
Russian and Ottoman empires gladly used the Cossacks to realize their goals, but the service deprived sense the existence of the Cossacks. Zaporizhzhya Cossacks have always been defenders of their native land, and this goal has inspired, to provide forces in combat enemies. Empire Service formally kept Cossacks, but deprived of his principal roles - defender of his people.
However, the role of Ukrainian Cossacks XIXArt. You can not underestimate. Even in those difficult times and it is outside the Ukrainian lands managed to maintain culture traditions and historical memory of its people.
Created with Cossacks Cossacks who remained in the Russian Empire, the Black Sea Cossack Host lived on land between the Southern Bug and Dniester. However, long stay in these lands it is not able. During the Russo-Turkish War of 1787-1791 biennium by Cossacks Empire in Turkey to seize the land between the Dniester and the Black Sea fortresses Kinburn and Hadzhybeyem. After winning Russian government was giving away these lands, and along with them on those living Cossacks, Russian dignitaries and foreign colonists. The prospect of rotation to serfs prompted the Cossacks from the Russian government to seek permission to relocation to other places.
Empress Catherine ІІ decided to approve the request of the Cossacks. From this it had a double benefit: pozbuvalasya Cossacks from Ukraine and due to their resettlement on the mainland to ensure the protection of borders of the empire. In 1792 Black Cossack troops were relocated to the Black Sea on defensive line right bank of the Kuban, the protection of which was the primary responsibility of the Cossacks.
At first, traditional forms of life Cossacks remained the same as before. Main basket Black Cossack troops, led by the military (kosh) chieftain, was located in newly m.Katerynodari. All land was redistributed to 40 hovel, of which 38 had the same name that existed in the army Zaporizhzhya. Smoking led by Ataman Cossacks are elected. But the Cossack officers who received orders and privileges of the Russian Army no longer wanted control of its activity by the military council and the possibility of losing their posts.
Cossack officers developed and Russian government approved new rules of Cossack life. They likviduvalasya military council, private property zatverdzhuvalasya officers on the ground that their earlier was appointed over the army. Finally, it was abolished long-standing ban Cossack concerning women. Katerynodar Sich was not as usual city where the family lived Cossacks.
The duty of the Black Sea Cossacks Military service was the empire. They defended the border area on the right Rivierar.Kuban attacks from the mountain peoples. Cossacks Chernomortsev acted as in the Russian army in 1794, in Poland, during the Franco-Russian War in 1812 and Russian-Turkish wars.
The Russian government has periodically pereselyav here otchayduhiv Left Bank. In this way, Empire had a double benefit: removed Left Bank with those who might start fighting for their lost rights, and provided a brave.
From the letter O. PrinceBaryatynskoho War Minister O. Milyutinu with proposals for the reorganization of the Black Sea Cossack Host.
"In the Black Sea Cossacks army, consisting of Little and traditions of the Zaporizhzhya Sich, their takes the form of identity and nationality revealed in their nepryhylnosti inorodtsiv to whom the Cossacks acidly called Moskal. M Black troops from the Caucasian line can counter this, but it is important that this merger proynyalo also Cossack way of life. "
Judge: 1. What has caused concern and dissatisfaction with the imperial elite in the life of Cossacks Chernomortsev? 2. Why imperial officials endeavored to make Black Sea Cossacks forget their old customs and traditions? 3. Chernomorets Why preserve their own forms of the national Life in "the era of nationalism was a danger to the empire?"
The second part of the Zaporizhzhya Cossacks who does not want to serve the Russian Empire and tried hard to keep their customs, settled in the Ottoman Empire. The Turkish sultan granted them land at the mouth of the Danube, and appeared Transdanubia basket. Duty Cossacks zadunaytsiv Military service was at the Turkish fleet during military campaigns. But the prospect of battle with their brothers in blood and weapons during the Russo-Turkish wars sparked strong protest Cossacks ago by order of Sultan began to use them only against the Serbs, Albanians and Greeks.
Turkish authorities have never trusted Cossack zadunaytsyam and devised a reliable method ensure their loyalty. Every time the Cossacks with Turkish Army set out on an expedition against the Christians, the entire basket ruchavsya for them. If their defiance of the Turkish commanders, those who remained on the Host, are consistent with his life for friends. Cossack society was divided by 38 with old hovel names. Married Cossacks lived separately, outside of the basket; Cossack chieftain, by ancient tradition, every year pereobyraly Cossack general council. Each hut had his badge or flag. Besides Cossack chieftain, was elected secretary, captain, smoking atamans. By order of the Sultan has always been to Host Turkish officer, whose official duty was to issue passports to those who left her limits, and unofficial - to observe the behavior of the Cossacks.
The main source of replenishment Danusian Sich were fugitives from Dnieper Ukraine. This number Cossacks zadunaytsivTogether with families to reach some 10 thousand years before the Turkish government against the involvement of Cossacks to suppress liberation uprisings of the Christian subjects of the empire at the beginning XIXArt. and Russian campaigns during the Russo-Turkish wars of 1806-1812 and 1828-1829 biennium prompted some zadunaytsiv to return to the land, subject to Russian Empire.
During the Russo-Turkish War 1806-1812 biennium Russian army again assured in military capabilities zadunaytsivWhen the king's general A.Lanzheronfailed 1807 overcome resistance to 3 thousand Cossacks who defended the Turkish fortress Brailov. "Transdanubia Cossacks -bitterly reported he - may harm greater than the Turks and Tatars ... "Since then, the Russian command failed to pidmanyuvannya zadunaytsiv all the privileges that Cossacks used to Chernomortsev Kuban - to just bring them back.
As a result of this campaign 1807 separate groups Cossacks zadunaytsiv started move to the side of Russia. The tsarist government immediately gave orders to their commanders Russian army officers and Cossacks of Emperor Alexander I of that year created Ust-Danube Budzhatske Cossack Host "Following the example of former army Zaporizhzhya.
Rumors of a "new Sich on the Danube spread quickly and caused massive flight of peasants to serfs Bessarabia. This frightened the king's government in the summer of that year eliminated "on January Danube ", and most of the Kuban Cossacks directed. However, many Cossacks refused to move and still live in old places, leaving claims Host renovation.
When in 1828 started a new war between the Russian and Ottoman empires, Ataman Danusian Host Joseph Smooth Relations with the Russians began to move in their direction. Russian government guaranteed a very high Otaman work and good pay, and those who pass along with it - amnesty and freedom. However great vizier sent on January order to zadunaytsi preparing for war. This Cossacks forced perspective to think about what to do: fight or go "Brother to brother" with the Orthodox, or jump to the side of the Russians. Ataman Joseph Smooth came from among nearly 13 thousand zadunaytsiv500 of its supporters and removing banners and military jewelry, moved to side of the Russians.
In Ismail J. Hladky met Nicholas I і addressed him with request to take under its authority. The emperor agreed, and thank Ataman showed Russian troops crossing the Danube, which was unknown to the Turks and ohoronyalasya not. Due to successful crossing the Russian army launched a successful offensive, which resulted in her winning the war.
Joseph Smooth carrying Emperor Nicholas and the Danube.
Lithograph. XIX Art.
Meanwhile, Cossacks Transdanubia Host learned about the deed chieftain, were terrified and fled, as understood that the Turks brutally pomstyatsya those who remained. And so it happened. When large vizier heard of action J. Hladky, then sent to the Turkish army in January. Those Turks were on the Host, was brutally killed, destroyed fortifications, the church burned. Since 1828 concluded to exist Transdanubia January - the last successor of glorious traditions of the Knights Cossacks.
Remains of the Cossacks and their families survived the Turkish massacre, still live in the Danube. Later, fleeing hither and those who were not pleased to serve as part of the empire created in 1828 with Cossacks zadunaytsiv Azov Cossack Host. Russian government settled them on the Azov Sea, between Bird (now Berdyansk) and Nahayskym (Modern Mariupol). Their main task was to guard the coast the small flotilla. Lo so Cossacks zadunaytsi in the service of empire became on a regular border guard, a subordinate-Novorossiysk Bessarabskom Governor-General.
In 1850, when the need Azov army fell, the Cossacks were forcibly resettled in the Kuban and North Caucasus. This resulted in the revolt which was brutally suppressed. In 1865 army finally eliminated, and those who wished to emigrate, transferred from the Cossack state to farmers.
For XIXArt. existed in Northern Bessarabia Danube Cossack army formed by the Russian Government of the direct descendants of the Cossacks. Its origins date back Cossacks zadunaytsiv, of which was established Ust-Danube Cossack Host. After his elimination of those Cossacks, who did not want to become cannon fodder in wars empire by conquest Mountain Peoples of the Caucasus, were living in the plains of southern Bessarabia. Ten years they have resisted local administration and demanded the return of its Cossack yet. Stubborn opposition culminated in 1828 when Emperor Nicholas I issued a decree on establishment of the Danube Cossack Host. Cause of change attitude toward the Cossacks in Imperial summit was very simple. Beginning next Russo-Turkish War, and the government, as always, had visited the Cossacks. Two cavalry regiments Danube Cossacks guarded the borders along the Danube, the Prut, the Black Sea coast Bessarabia and Kherson region, participated in a military campaign. The main shock force troops at first were direct descendants of the Cossacks, but Russian Administration was forcibly recruited to fill hundreds of Gypsies Albanians, Greeks, Moldovans. The government did this deliberately because they do not sought recovery under the terms of Ukrainian Cossacks and the form that would be contrary to its policy of "mixing" of nations in a single imperial boiler.
Traditional Cossack self-government in the army was abolished. In the military-administrative aspects of the Cossacks subject-Novorossiysk Bessarabskom Governor-General. Substituted Ataman appointed by the Russian government. Service in Danube army, as in other Cossack troops of the empire, was exhausting and lasted 30 years. Since strict military discipline would not allow Cossacks to fight for their rights, the main form of protest were escaping.
In 1844 announced new provision Danube Cossack Host, which finally turned him into one Tools of Empire conquering other peoples. Departments Dunajecregularly sent to the Caucasus, where they were forced to participate in suppressing struggle for independence Chechens, Ossetians and other highlanders.
Had to play an important role Danube army regiments during the Crimean War, 1853-1856 biennium For heroism Cossack regiments were awarded's standard "for courage", many Cossacks received orders and have been promoted through the ranks.
Danube Cossack Host was interesting historical phenomenon, as a result there was a convergence of interests Danube Cossacks settlers on the one hand, and the Russian government - with more. When that interest is exhausted, in 1868 last Cossack troops on the territory of Ukraine eliminated.
Ukrainian Cossacks in XIXArt. was fundamentally different phenomenon in content than in previous century. But still, the image was for the Ukrainian Cossack people the best standard of humanity, the embodiment of national rice character. The courage and bravery, love of freedom and homeland, democracy and creative nature - these components Cossack heritage, which was attached to Ukrainian national revival XIXArt. Immortal, full of faith in the future of the Ukrainian people, the words said Kozak-Zadunayets Nikita Ananias: "And for us ... it is not our lost ... Until now, not lost, it is not lost! .. Our seed nobody subdued!
1. Explain the content of the expression "two branches of felled trees "on the fate of the Zaporizhzhya Cossacks and their descendants in XIXArt.
2. What were the special situation descendants of Zaporizhzhya Cossacks under imperial power?
3. Compare the life and ministry Black Sea Cossack Host and Host Danusian. Identify common and distinctive features.
4. As was established Azov Cossack army?
5. Describe the Danube Cossack army. Indicating that it was used Russian government as a tool of imperial policy?
6. Expand the contents statements that Danube Cossack Host "arose as a result of convergence of interests Transdanubia Cossacks settlers on the one hand, and the Russian government on the other. "