§ 4. The Paris Peace Conference in 1919
1. The intentions of the major winners at the conference
For the preparation of peace treaties with the defeated countriesit was decided to convene a peace conference. France has madeholding it in its capital.
January 18, 1919 Paris Peace Conference openedFrench Prime Minister Jean Clemenceau. In it was attended by 27countries, but the dominant role played by France, Britain and the U.S.. OnConference was not invited representatives of the vanquished nations and Russia, whichthere was civil war.
Key issues were resolved at the conference on narrowMeetings major countries of the world: First to "Council 9, and from March1919 - to "Radio 4".
French prime minister Jean ClemenceauOpens the work of the Paris Peace Conference
Talk peace treaties with the defeated countriesall showed major differences between the negotiators. What is there were plansand intentions of major powers?
France to other large states affected by war.Hostilities were carried on its territory. France became a creditor ofdebtor. But the main debtor France - Russia rescinded all of itsobligations. The most popular slogan in the country was: "The Germans allpay! "French Prime Minister Georges Clemenceau was determined torealize this motto and sought to weaken Germany by any means. Hesaid: "In Europe, 20 million Germans unnecessary. So they had tobecome less, at least adjacent to the French territories. Forthese intentions atturalhoped to regain Alsace and Lorraine, prevent the unification of Austria andGermany, a German buffer state on the left bank of the River Rhine, PassGerman states of Belgium, of Denmark, Poland etc. It was predicteda secret agreement between France and Tsarist Russia. This document was andto recover from losing the best possible German reparations. Francealso claimed a part of the Ottoman heritage.
French proposal met opposition from England and the USA.Based on the traditional principle of "European equilibrium", whereby anaval power to support profitable rvnovahu between rivalscontinent, England and the United States objected to the excessive weakening and strengthening of GermanyFrance. Even Clemenceau, Lloyd George said: "The day after`truceI found I face your enemy in France. " - "Well, then, - answeredLloyd George. - Is not it always been our traditional policy?.
Another motive that guidedEngland and the U.S. on Germany, was their desire to make Germanyoutpost against Bolshevism (Communism).
France refused to significantweakening of Germany, England and the United States promised in exchange for this concession contractsof mutual assistance in case of German aggression.
Britain before the Peace Conference reachedits main objective in the war. German navy ceased to exist. BesidesBritish dominions should control the German colonies, and mostEngland - part of the Ottoman Empire. The objective of the delegation Englishheaded by Prime Minister D.Lloyd George was to consolidate the achievements already.At the same time England was the return of Alsace and Lorraine France. Anddelineating the borders of postwar Europe, according to Lloyd George, had to beproceed from the principle of nationality and self-determination. The main conditionpostwar - peace through disarmament and theLeague of Nations as an instrument of peace. Lloyd GeorgeAs Clemenceau, was an experienced politician and hadsolid resistance in parliament.
But not in England consisted optimistic. BritishEmpire lost the former power: dominions achieved greater independence;had to promise the government of India and Ireland, with a global lenderEngland became a debtor, has been weakened economy, finance andtrade - disorganized. Eliminating a threat to its navalpower from Germany, England watched with concern the rapidincreasing power of the fleet U.S. and Japan.
Observations on postwar English worlddelegation outlined in the document, called "Message from Cambrai.
D.Lloyd George(England), Jean Clemenceau (France), B. Wilson (USA), was in their hands the destiny of the world
For the U.S. Пersha World War meant a radical change in its positionworld. From the U.S. turned into a debtor creditor. Economic power over the yearsWar increased (national wealth in 1914 amounted to 192 billion dollars.,and in 1920 - 489 billion), the country has created a powerful army and navy.But internally there was heated debate on the goals of Americanforeign policy isolationism between supporters and supporters of activeForeign Policy (Ekspansyonistamy). Isolationist kept the covenant firstU.S. President George Washington, who warned the Americans from interfering infor Europe.
The events of World War I - Totalsubmarine warfare, launched by Germany, which violated the principle of freeShipping, destruction of peaceful American citizens of sunken Civilships - Inclinedpublic opinion for U.S. participation in the war and thus to strong foreignpolicy.
State President W. Wilson believed thatchange the U.S. role in the world gives them a chance to become a lifeguard world and introduce newprinciples of interstate relations. His vision of these principles he expressed in "14Settlements ", published January 8, 1918 They provide for:
1) open a peace treaty;
2) freedom of navigation;
3) removal of economic barriers to trade;
4) establish safeguards that would ensure the reductionweapons;
5) fair settlement of colonial issues;
6) liberation from German occupation of Russian territories,Russia is also providing unimpeded opportunity to determine its political developmentand national politics, joining the "community of free nations";
7) the liberation and restoration of Belgium;
8) the return of Alsace and Lorraine France, recoveryoccupied areas of France;
9) specification of the borders of Italy in accordance with nationalfeatures;
10) granting autonomy to the peoples of Austria-Hungary;
11) liberation from German occupation in RomaniaSerbia and Montenegro and of Serbia landlocked;
12) of Turkish samostiyne existence and autonomy inonatsionalnyhparts of the Ottoman Empire;
13) the creation of the Polish state;
14) formation of the League of Nations.
Proposals Wilson were close to those who wanted to createmore just and democratic order that would exclude repeatWorld War II. But Wilson's credibility within the country was severely disrupted,when the Bolsheviks published the secret agreement of the Entente countries, the existence of whichWilson knew nothing. From them it appeared that American soldiers fought forselfish interests of European countries. It immediately caused a change in attitudesAmericans, and congressional elections in 1918 Republicans, followingdirectly isolationist foreign policy, won. Thismeant that Congress would not ratify any of the peace treaties concludedpresident.
2. Preparation of a peace treaty
Preparation of formal peace treaty has been implemented in"14 points". From this it appeared that the secret agreement should notwere taken into account, however, they are constantly influenced the development of conditionspostwar world.
Yes, Italy, which is inclined to take part in the war on the side of the Entente promisedgive it up to South Tyrol, the whole east coast of the Adriatic Sea andAsia Minor, the conference demanded of those territories. But its contribution to the victory overCentral States was marked by so low that claims for thoseterritory declared unfounded against a much larger contribution to Serbia, and whichtransferred the Adriatic coast.
Romaniain turn, insisted on transferring her to Transylvania, Bukovina, Banat ofAustro-Hungarian heritage, she promised in 1916 Besides, it occupiedBessarabia. Only active part in suppressing the Hungarian revolution ittransferred these territories.
Duringdiscussion of one of the conference. Versailles Mirror Hall
U.S. primarily were interested inimplement the principle of free trade and navigation, and creating the League of NationsWilson believed negotiating tool with other issues.
FranceGermany insisted on weakening any means. England and the U.S. sawthat excessive weakening of Germany will create a dangerous vacuum inEurope. England regarded the request of U.S. on free trade as a challengeits maritime power.
These and other problems and led to a sharp fight onconference.
3. "Ukrainian issue" at the conference
"Ukrainian Question" in ParisPeace Conference did not stand a separate item on the agenda, and arose inthe consideration and determination of borders between the countries of Eastern Europe.
Seizure of eastern Poland, Galicia and Volhynia had received noproper evaluation of the Paris Peace Conference. Not adopting a formaldecisions, leaders Entente and the U.S. is actually determined the fate of the WestLand for Poland. On to transfer them under the Polish government, especiallyFrance and the U.S. insisted. Thus they ignored the performance of Ukrainianrepresentatives of the natural right of the Ukrainian nation to self-determination.
With more understanding to resolve the issue of UkrainianParis Peace Conference treated the English. It is associated in particular withthat the British advisor to the Ministry of Foreign AffairsGalicia was Namiyer L., originally from Ukraine.
June 25 1919 Poland has received authorization to occupy the whole of Galicia andintroduction of civil administration in the territory. The condition was to ensureGalicia autonomy, political, religious and personal freedoms of the population.
Tactically flexible diplomatic line to inheritTranscarpathia, conducted president of Czechoslovakia Masaryk and the MinisterForeign Affairs E. Benesh. Their actions are coordinated with the Western powers andobtained support the Carpathian exile in the U.S.. In January 1919Czech troops occupied Uzhgorod. 8 May in Paris, it was decidedtransfer of Carpathian Ukraine, Czechoslovakia. In September 1919 itbecame a Saint-Germain peace treaty.
In the French capital, also discussed the fate ofNorthern Bukovina and Bessarabia. They were vidtorhneno in favor of Romania.Ukraine and рadyanskaRussia did not recognize the legitimacy of those decisions.
Thus the discussion of "Ukrainian issue" at the Paris Peaceconference revealed disinterest of the existence of large independentUkrainian state. This was due to several factors: 1) in Ukraineconference was presented by various governments, which do not always coordinate theiraction, 2), Ukraine was "contaminated" Bolshevism and 3) to Ukrainian landsclaimed by neighboring countries, including Poland, Romania and Czechoslovakia, whichwere allies of the Entente, 4), the Entente could not forgive Ukrainesignature by the Union of Brest Quarter peace.
4. Terms of the Versailles Peace
In April, was completed drafting the text of the agreementGermany. Her delegation was summoned to Paris for his presentation. AttemptsGerman diplomats to make at least some changes to the document was rejected,and June 28, 1919 Peace signed at Versailles, which became the basispost-war settlement. The text of the treaty at the insistence of Wilson wasLeague of Nations Charter contains (He was also vmischenyy and agreements with alliesGermany).
Duringsigning ceremony of the Treaty of Versailles
Under the contract back its land France - Alsace andLorraine and the Saar coal mines passed, however, the area 15years passed under the control of the League of Nations. Germany passed Poznan Poland,part of Upper Silesia, Pomerania and parts of East Prussia, which is separated fromin Germany Polish (Dantsyzkyy) corridor, which opened the way Polandthe Baltic Sea. Belgium received Eypen counties, and Moreno after Malmediplebiscite, Denmark - northern Schleswig, Memel (Klaipeda) gonein the jurisdiction of the winners (1923 annexed to Lithuania), and Danzig(Gdansk) was proclaimed a free city under the protection of the League of Nations.
By Treaty of Versailles Germany lost 1 / 7 of itsterritory in which to live, 1 / 12 of its population. It completely get rid ofcolonies - they divided among the conquerors. She was forbidden to keepin the army more than 100 thousand soldiers, have air and submarine fleets,likvidovuvavsya general staff, skasovuvalasya general conscription.Foreseen that 15-year occupation of the Entente troops left bank of the Rhine anddemilitarization of the 50-kilometer area on its right bank.
TextTreaty of Versailles
By decision of the special commission had to pay Germanyreparation. Their total amount was determined by a special conference1921 of $ 132 billion gold marks, of which 52% had to getFrance, 22 - and 10% UK - Italy.
5. Formation of the League of Nations
The Paris Peace Conference adopted produced a specialCommission of the League of Nations Charter, which became part of the Versailles and otheragreements with allies Germany.
The main body of the international organization had an annualAssembly, comprising all members of the organization, and the Council of the League, where they wererepresented the United States, Britain, France, Japan, Italy, and fivenon-permanent members. Decisions on all matters submitted had unanimously.The losers in the war state, and Soviet Russia, not up to the League of Nations.The purpose of the League declared the development of cooperation between nations and guaranteesecurity of the postwar world. U.S. Senate, read the terms and conditionsVersailles peace treaty and, therefore, the Charter of the League of Nations rejectedit, and the U.S., as an initiator of this international organization, notincluded in it.
Flag of the League of Nations
GeneralAssembly LF performed the role of international real parliament and had the rightmake decisions on all international political issues, including measuresdesigned to keep the peace.
By LFbelonged to two management areas: Saarland and the city of Danzig (Gdansk).Colonial possession of Germany and the Ottoman empire were transferred by mandateLF Britain and herї dominion,France, Belgium and Japan.
Documents and materials
Lloyd George to Clemenceau and Wilson during the Parispeace treaties
"Clemenceau is following her every movement, like an old watchdog monitorsunfamiliar and uninvited dog whichjust got in there and gives serious doubts about his true intentions.Has never been a greater contrast - the intellectual and spiritualaspects - than between the two in his own wonderful people. Wilson, with hishigh but narrow forehead, large and beautiful head, and dreamywatchful eyes was an idealist, a little in love with himself. In Clemenceau powerfulhead and a square forehead, indicating nevmolymu logic nape cut offso that the humane feelings were probably it is not known, wary eye of the beast, who used to hunt and was himself the object ofhunting throughout their lives. Idealist Wilson comforted until Clemenceau,until the idealist not begun to require that his dream was embodied in the contract thathe had, Clemenceau had to sign? It all turned into stars andhearing, fearing Wilson that any particular phrase slopes conferenceaccept the offer which According to France, would weaken the treaty. IfSometimes the Wilson has finished his speech and caused no noticeable this timedamage, severe countenance for some time m'yakshalo; manifested a deep sighrelief. But if the president flew inBlue Vys, as many times with himhappened and lose touch withreality, Clemenceau surprise revealed his big eyes and looked at me,as if saying: "Well, again, has suffered! .."
Questions to document
1. What position on Clemenceau and Wilson took LloydGeorge?
2. As character and personal relationships influenced the coursenegotiations?
Charter of the League of Nations
Article 8. ? Reduction of national armed forces to the minimumnecessary to safeguard national security and implementation of internationalobligations.
Article 11. League of Nations can not remain dormant atcase of war or threat of war against a memberorganization.
Article 12. ? Any differences between members of the League, whichpose a threat to peace, should be considered by arbitration.
Article 13. ? Members are obliged to recognize andimplement the decisions made by this court.
Article 16. ? If one member of the League resort to wardespite all make a commitment, he ipso facto consideredaggression in relation to the rest of the League. League members must immediatelybreak from it all the trading and financial relations, to prohibit citizenstheir states to come into contact with the citizens of the state to violate the contract?
In thisIf the Council is committed recommend to the Governments concerneduse military force Marineand air, through which members of the Leaguecan help the armed forces thatforced to respect the obligations takenLeague itself. Member of the League, beguilty of breach of contract obligations may be excluded fromorganization. The decision to expel shall be taken by vote of all members of the League,represented in the Council.
Inquiries to document
1. Whichpeace mechanism was envisaged in the Charter of the League of Nations?
2. OnDo you think it effective? Indicate strengths and weaknesses of its aspects. Answer atгruntuyte.
Treaty of Versailles. June 28, 1919
Article 32. Germany recognizes the full sovereignty of Belgium overall? Moreno territory?
Article 34. Germany refusesmoreover, in favor of Belgium from any of the rights and pravoosnovterritory containing quite countiesEypen and Malmedi.
Article 42. Germany is forbiddenmaintain or build fortifications on the left bank of the Rhine, as well asright bank of the Rhine to the west of line drawn 50 kilometers east of the wholeRiver.
Article 43. At the same time prohibited indefined area in art. 42 concentration of forces aspermanent and temporary, as well as any military maneuvers whatever kind they were, and storageany material basis for mobilization.
Article 45. As compensation fordestruction of the coal mines of northern France and the amount of reparations forwar damage caused by Germany, France, in the latter yields a complete andunlimited property free and clear of any debts or obligations ofexclusive right of exploitation of coal mines located in Saarskomupool?
Article 51. Areas givenGermany based on the lifting of the provisional peace signed at Versailles February 261871, and the Frankfurt agreement of 10 May 1871,back under French sovereignty since the November 11 truce1918 ... (It is about Alsace and Lorraine).
Article 80. Germany acknowledges andstrictly respect the independence of Austria?
Article 81. Germany acknowledges? fullindependence of the Czecho-Slovak State towhich will include the autonomous territory of the Ruthenians south of the Carpathians. She announcesof agreement about the boundaries of the State, they will be identified major Allied and Associated Powers andother interested countries.
Article 87. Germany recognizes? fullindependence of Poland and for Poland refuses to any rights andpravoosnov the territory limitedBaltic Sea, the eastern border of Germany, defined so as described incentury. 27 Part II (Frontiers of Germany) thereof?
Article 102. Principal Allied andUnited States undertake to establish the city of Danzig? Free City. Hiswill be taken under the protection of the League of Nations.
Article 119. Germany rejectsin favor of Principal Allied and United States all their rights andpravoosnov its overseas dependencies.
Article 160. ? German Army should not consist of moreseven infantry divisions and three cavalry divisions. ? The total number? notexceed one hundred thousand people? The total strength of officers? notexceed four thousand?
Great German General Staff and any other similarformation will be dissolved and can not recover in any form.
Article173. All infos general compulsory military service in Germany will be canceled.
German army can be built and completed onlyvoluntary recruiting.
Article 180. All terrestrial fortifications, fortresses and fortifiedsites located in German territory west of the line drawn byfifty kilometers east of the Rhine will be ruined and zryto?
The system of fortifications southern and eastern borders of Germanywill be preserved in their current state.
Article 181. ? Force the German fleet must not exceedarmed vehicles: 6 battleships, 6 light cruisers, 12 counter-minonostsiv 12minonostsiv?
They should not have any underwater vehicles.
Article 198. Military forces of Germany must not have anymilitary or naval aviation?
Inquiries to document
1. Giveassessment of military articles of the Treaty.
2. Whichterritorial changes Germany has undergone?
Questions and Tasks
1. Whatwas the principal novelty of the ideas contained in the "14 points"Wilson?
2.Describe the position of the great powers before and during the Paris Peaceconference.
3. Asconducted training of a peace treaty with Germany?
4.Find Versailles peace terms. Why Germany was declared the culprit induring the war?
5. Asdecided the fate of Western Ukraine at the Paris Peace Conference?
6. Whatassigned the role of the League of Nations in the postwar world? Why not become a member of the U.S.League of Nations?
Note the dates:
January 8, 1918- Posted"14 points" by W. Wilson.
1919-1920 biennium- The Paris Peaceconference.
June 28, 1919Treaty of Versaillespeace treaty.