§ 40-41. Formation of foci of the Second World War. CreationBlock Berlin-Rome-Tokyo
1.Impact of global economic crisis on international relations
Worldeconomic crisis aggravated international relations and led to the emergence of focinew war. Unlike the eve of World War I? in 30 years onlyfew countries wanted the war. This situation made realopportunity to address the risk of war in terms of joint actions around the community.Of course, the international relations 30 years should not be treated as a singletrend, aimed at preparing a new war, but the overall trendof Versailles-Washington system of international relations was the samesuch. As the strengthening and deepening the conflict that broke out in every30 years, growing desire of participants to resolve them by compromise, andimposedbinding force of his will.
Undoubtedly, in the early 30's, despite the severity of the crisis,hardly anyone from contemporary politicians would dare say that by the enddecade could ignite a new, more larger scale world war. At thattime politicians concerned about issues that foreign policy steps may evenb `died yakshyty nslidky crisis.
The firsttest the ability of the international community to work together has become an economicallycrisis. It was put before the world and all countries of the taskcoordinate their efforts to overcome it.
Realsteps along the way leading politicians of that time saw in reducing militarycosts (this is expected by reducing arms and armies, or the creation of suchinternational security system, which would make unnecessary major military spending)and ease the financial burden of debts and reparations.
In January1930 in Lndoni opened an international conference on maritime limitsozbryen. It was an attempt to extend terms "Treaty fivefiveOn other classes of combatShip: cruisers, destroyers, submarines. The full solution of this question Inot headingfailed: France and Italy refused to sign the agreement. USA, England, Japan -agreed on cruisers and destroyers to keep spividnoshennya 5: 5: 3.For submarines, the principle of equality zaprovadzhuvavsya fleets.
In February 1932, after a long preparatory work in Geneva lastConference opened rozbroyennyu. Since the beginning of`found that between vyduchymy Statesthere were significant differences in approaches to this problem. Yes, Francebelieved that the issue of rozbroyennya should precede the creation of an international army undersupremacy of the League. Her main opponent of Germany called for the elimination of allTreaty of Versailles restrictions. England primarily interested in the problem of liquidatingsubmarines and chemical weapons. The U.S. argued for reducing landforces. USSR sought to put on the agenda of the conference on generalrozbroyennya gradual or proportional. Italy, proposed to start the yearmoratorium on building weapons. Japan as a prerequisitedemanded recognition of its special role in the Far East and Pacific BasinOcean. Thus, each of the major countries is not so much thinking about solvingobjectives of the conference, but most get unilateral benefit. It causedresult of the conference: it was over nothing.
German poster, which wasprove bezzahisnist Germany
Carried out and attempts to manage affairs in international finance.
U.S.1931 proposed moratorium for one year on payment of debts andreparations. This proposal was accepted. In 1932 decidedgeneral obligation to eliminate reparatory Germany. The debtor, withtheir part, simply stopped paying debt.
Seemedthat was a precedent of collective action in the face of common threats.
ButAlmost simultaneously, the U.S. entered the high customs taxes, and Britain refused tofrom the "gold standard" free exchange of pounds of goldat a fixed rate and tried to set the exchange rate of pound, which wouldfacilitated the export of English goods. By doing so the U.S. and UKprovoked a customs and currency "war" that the world dezorhanizuvalotrade and further deepened the crisis.
In1933 was convened in London a world economic conference. Itdiscussed the problem of stabilization of currencies and develop ways of revivingworld trade. It ended without result. Prevailed desire to solveeconomic problems are not together, but alone, when each country tried toshift the burden of the crisis in the neighbor. У result of increased economic rivalry anddeclined the opportunity to do joint resistance in the face of war.
Meanwhileas were lively discussions at various international forums, with `appearedstate asandwere willing to break the existing system of international relations and establishits hegemony in the world.
2.Lesion of war in the Far East
FirstWar there was a fire in the Far East. In 1927 Japanese Prime MinisterTanaka stated in the memorandum to Emperor territorial conquests in the programFar East and the destruction of America's power in the Pacific Ocean.
Autumn1931 Japanese troops occupied territory of Manchuria - important instrategically and economically part of China.
Attackin Manchuria after provocative explosion occurred on the railway nearMukdena, organized by the Japanese September 18, 1931 For several monthsthe entire territory was occupied Manchuria, although the number of Japanese armywas 14 thousand people., while Chinese - 100 ths. Chinalimited complaints League Нtions.
Onraked in North-eastern China in 1932 Japanese createdpuppet state Manchukuo-Go, appointing its last rulerChinese Emperor Pu I.
Emperor Manchu-Kuo Pu and
Justifying aggression? Japan claimed the threat of Soviet penetration in thisregion and quoted as an example of Sino-Soviet conflict in 1929 RI financial supportChinese Communist Soviet Union.
Suchof Japan led the world community to take action. League Нtions at the request of Chinaestablished a special commission to study the problem. The Commission recommendedJapanese troops withdraw and transfer Manchuria under international control. ButJapan was not condemned as an aggressor. League Нtions said that Manchuria is part ofChina did not recognize the Manchu-Kuo. In response to Japan in 1933demonstratively withdrew from the League Нtions. Provided for in this case sanctions against Japan andwere not introducedджAnnie. U.S. and Englandachieved the conclusion of Japan-China peace compromise: Japan takestroops from Shanghai, China and - recognize Manchukuo. Appeared first precedent of impunityaggression.
Statement by the representative of the Japanese wayLeague of Nations
3. AggressionItaly against Ethiopia
In1935 Italy took advantage of this precedent. She considered herself deprivedresults of the First World War and did not hide aggressive plans? toand intentions which included the conquest of Ethiopia.
Most members of the League of Nations did notwant to listen to speech of Emperor Haile Selassie of Ethiopia
Since October 1935 was 250,000thItalian army, armed aircraft and tanks, vderlasya territory Ethiopia. Ethiopian armyput up stubborn resistance. But forces were unequal. Council of the League Нtions announced Italyaggressor and instructed all members organizationsції apply it to economicsanctions. These measures proved ineffective. U.S. and UK announcedneutrality and refused to supply Ethiopia's modern military equipment. Timsame victim and the aggressor were put on one stage.
Italian army takesAbyssinia
InMay 1936 Italy has announced the conquest of the whole of Ethiopia. It wascombined with Eritrea and Italian Somalia into Italian East Africa.Ethiopian people launched a guerrilla struggle against the aggressors, whichended the country's liberation by the British in 1941
4.Aggression Germany. Elimination of Versailles
AfterHitler came to power in Germany joined the group of aggressive states. To1933 Germany's position within the Versailles system was significantlyeasier. She stopped paying reparations. The talks on disarmament1932 it promised equality in arms. At the official leveleven discussed the question of the return of German colonies. An important steptowards further elimination of Versailles was signed in July1933 the proposal Mussolini Pact consent and cooperation "between England, France, Italy and Germany. This pact provided a widecooperation of view of Versailles and the legal systemGermany secured equality of arms. However, ratification of the treatywas frustrated.
ForHitler renegotiation of the Treaty of Versailles was only the first stepworld domination. The second step was supposed to unite all Germans inone state, and it involved the Austrian, German population areasFrance, Belgium, Czechoslovakia, Poland and Lithuania. The third step was towinning a "living space" in the East. Possessionraw materials and agricultural resources of Eastern Europe, Germany, according to Hitlercan win the struggle for world domination.
This, each of the identified steps Hitler meant not simply viewVersailles system and the way to its complete elimination and fundamental changeinternational relations? formed. This was the path to war.
EvidenceHitler's determination to become Germany's withdrawal from the League Нtions in October 1933
In1934 attempt was made to join Austria. Towards accession wasItaly, which threatened direct military intervention. Hitler temporarily departed.
1935was a turning point. After payment of compensation for the French coal mines Saarlandas a result of the plebiscite went to Germany. Germany renounced the articlesTreaty of Versailles, which forbade her to have a military aircraft, announcedintroduction of general conscription and the formation of 36 army divisions.
Population Saar rejoicesaccession to Germany (1935)
BetweenBritain and Germany in 1935 concluded a naval agreement. Under this agreement,Germany allowed to increase the tonnage of the German fleet at 5,5 times and buildsubmarines. Thus the German fleet allowed to have more thanFrench. The agreement was already bilateral violation of Versailles.
SignatureSoviet-French agreement (1935)
SignatureSoviet-Czechoslovak agreement (1935)
Suchturn of events was the nearest future disturb neighbors Germany. Europeandiplomacy has been actively discussidea of a collective security system. In 1934 the USSR was adopted toLeague of Nations. In May 1935 the USSR and France signed an agreement on mutual assistance.A similar agreement was concluded between the USSR and CHSR. By contract the parties commitconnected tomutual assistance. However, ratification of the treaty France postponed,using the fact of signing the contract as a means of pressure on Germany. OnWest has been fairly stable anti-Soviet sentiment. Realizing this, Hitlerdare to take decisive action: in March 1936 the German troops were putRhine in the demilitarized zone. Neither Britain nor France would not have applied in the prescribedIf measures.
Introduction German army in Rhinedemilitarized zone (1936)
In Germany, went facilitate the production of weapons programs were carried outcreation of synthetic gasoline and rubber, which would reduce the country's dependence onimports. Bightopen preparation for war.
Thisway, established after World War imperfect system of EuropeanSecurity was eliminated.
Scheme:Hitler's path to world domination.
First stage Second stage Third stage
View and elimination Objectsunion all Conquest World
Versailles system Germans in one "Living space" domination
State in the East.
5.Creating block Berlin-Rome-Tokyo
Sharedinterests of Japan, Italy, Germany quickly led them to convergence. November 251936 Germany and Japan signed the Anti-Comintern pact, and 6November 1937 Italy joined him. Formed axisBerlin-Rome-Tokyo. The parties were obligated to inform each other of activitiesComintern and lead a joint struggle against it. In addition to the contract gavepledge in the event of war one side with the USSR not do anything that wouldease the situation of the USSR.
Signing of the Anti-CominternCovenant
Thisblock aggressor was not monolithic. Germany and Italy rivals in Austria andboth claim to hegemony in the Balkans, before they managed to agreedivision of spheres of influence in the region. Then Germany declaredItaly conquest of Ethiopia. Then Germany and Italy are activelycoordinate their policies and jointly held a series of international events. In1936 they supported the insurgency Nationalists SpainWhich led toTo power in 1939 Frank.
Poster. Berlin-Rome-Tokyo "
Difficult relationships developed in Germany and Japan. They are complicatedthat Japan seized German colonies in the Pacific OceanNo, and China and was not going toreturn. Germany and Italy during the Japanese aggression in 1937 againstChina sold weapons the Chinese government. Both countries were far apartfrom each other and sought to preserve freedom of action in its sphere of interest.
Tomid 30's Germany, Italy and Japan are on the path of direct infringementconditions of the postwar settlement. Above all Versailles-Washington systemthreatened. The alternative it was proposed by Germany, Italy andJapan based on the rule of force "new order", which consistedto share the peace between these states. The path to the new order went through war.
6. LeagueNations in the growth of military danger
Ringing in the League of Nations asked England and France, soits activity was in line with foreign policy priorities of these countries.
Since its inception, the League of Nations did not use broadpowers granted to it by Statute. It anticipated the arms limitation,mutual guarantees of territorial integrity and independence, control measuresagainst the aggressor, including collective sanctions. In practice, the League of Nations did notbecome an instrument of peace and security curb the aggressors. No question there is notsolved constructively. Leading States were interested in increasingits armed forces, so often occupied waiting, unprincipled position.So when China made an appeal to Japanese aggression in Manchuria, the CouncilLeague of Nations only hoped for the normalization of Japan-China relations.First Japan, then Germany came out of the League of Nations, to continueof their foreign policy agenda. Italy, however, was appliedeconomic sanctions, but not in full, and she did not stop seizingEthiopia. Do not see the condemnation and other acts of aggression that pushed the world todisaster. Not porahuvavsya of the League of Nations and the Soviet Union by making1939 attack on Finland.
Documents and materials
From the memoirs of Emperor Manchu-Kuo Pu and
In August 1932 have been issued a secret agreement between Japan andManchu-Kuo. The main substance of it was the following: protection of national security andcivil order in Manchukuo relies entirely on Japan, it willcontrol of railroads, ports, water and air. Japan has the rightconduct exploration and mining to build mine (mine), the Japanese may be appointedto positions in the Manchu-Kuo, Japan has the right to resettle in the Manchu-Kuo Japanese.Japan sent its ambassador to the Manchu-Kuo, it became the real rulerthe area, the real emperor of Manchukuo.
In May 1932 the commission arrived Northeast LeagueNations investigation of the so-called Manchurian question. May 3 was mymeeting with members of the commission, which lasted no more than a half hour. It measked two questions: how I came to the North East and was established asManchu-Kuo. I obediently began to say that I was commanded. Commission membersbeckoned heads, smiled and asked nothing more. Then alongphotographed, drank champagne and each other pobozhaly HealthI. Commission of`Go.
The Commission stated that she understands why Japan thinksManchuria vital line. She repeatedly stressed that respectsJapanese interests in North East China, and even considered as events in 1931act of self-defense of Japan.
Since early 1933, pisyal exit from the League of Nations, Japan beganmore open to increase your army and expand its training toWar. Especially increased its preparation to capture the entire territory of Chinaand strengthening the rear.
Inquiries to document
1. About the events recalledPu and?
2. While he commends theJapan to China?
3. As the author describes the actionCommission LF? Try to explain this position LF.
4. What place are describedevents are taken in the development of international relations 30 years?
Winston Churchill Memoirs of a conversation with Ribbentrop (1937City)
One day in 1937 I met with the German ambassador toEngland Ribbentrop. Our conversation lasted over two hours. The essence of thingsRibbentrop was to the fact that Germany is committed to friendship with England.Germany to protect the entire large British Empire. The Germans, perhaps, be askedreturn them to the German colonies, but not kordynalne question. It would be importantGermany to England gave free hand in eastern Europe. Germany needsliving space. Therefore it has to absorb Poland and Danzig corridor. Thataffected Belarus and Ukraine, these are absolutely necessary for the territoryensure the future existence of the German Reich. The only thing the Germanswould invite the British Commonwealth and Empire, not to interfere.
I immediately expressed my conviction that the EnglishGovernment agrees to give Germany free hand in Eastern Europe. While wehated communism no less than his hated Hitler, but Britainwould never have lost interest in the fate continent so as to allowGermany to establish its domination over Central and Eastern Europe.Ribbentrop said: "In this case, war is inevitable. No other way.Fuehrer this dare. Nothing will stop him, and nothing will stop us. "
Inquiries to document
1. Пro which events and processes in international relations dealt with in the document?
2. Яk positions of the parties are stated in the document?
3. What is the justification given position in a conversation?
4. Was war inevitable?
Additional Protocol Anti-Comintern Pact
By signing the agreement against the communistInternazionale, authorized representatives, with respect to this Agreementagreed as follows:
1) appropriate authorities of both High Contracting Parties,maintain close cooperation in the exchange of information onactivities of the communist "Internationale" and aboutdecision-explanatory and defensive measures in connection with activitiesCommunist "Internationale";
2) The appropriate authorities of the High Contracting Parties,take within current legislation stringent measures against persons directly or indirectly, domestically or abroad arein the service of the communist "Internationale" or his subversive Servicesactivities;
3) to alleviate the above mentioned in paragraph 1 of cooperationbetween relevant authorities of both High Contracting Parties, Permanent Commission will be established in whichvyvchatymutsya and discuss further defensive measures necessary toprevent subversion of the communist "Internationale."
Inquiries to document
1. Whatwas due to the signing of the Covenant?
2. Thatbecame the basis for a unit of aggression?
Questions and Tasks
1. Asinfluenced by the economic crisis years 1929-1932 to the international relations?
2. Whatthe main differences between the eve of the first and second world wars?
3. Whatposition occupied in the increasing U.S. threat of war?
4.Bring contradictory foreign policy interests of European countries and USA.
5. Whyrozbroyennya conference ended in failure?
6. Wherefirst war there was a fire and why there?
7. Thatenabled Germany to refuse compliance with the Treaty of Versailles articles?
8. WhichHitler developed a plan to achieve world domination?
9. WhyThe USSR was admitted to the League of Nations?
10. Thatzblyzhuvalo Germany, Italy, Japan?
11.Describe the role of the League of Nations in international relations 30 years.
Note the dates:
1931-1932he OccupationJapan Manchuria.
1933was Exit Japan and Germany from the League of Nations.
1933- Installationdiplomatic relations between the U.S. and USSR.
1934- Adoption of the USSR toLeague of Nations.
1935was English-GermanMaritime Agreement.
1935- ConclusionFranco-Soviet and Soviet-Czechoslovak treaties.
1935-1936he - Italian aggression against Ethiopia.
March1936 - Introduction of German troops in the demilitarized Rhinezone.
1936-1939he - The Spanish Civil War.
25November 1936 - Signing of the German and Japanese Anti-CominternPact.
6November 1937 - Italy's accession to the Anti-Comintern Pact.Create axis Berlin-Rome-Tokyo.