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§ 2. The emergence of modern human type. (textbook)

§ 2. Appearancemodern human type.

1. Manintelligent

In the struggle for survival is not changedonly way of life of primitive man, but also its appearance. In latePaleolithic Age - 40-30 thousand years ago - appeared on the planet Homo sapiens (homo sapiens). Scientists call this person kromanyontsem.The name comes from the French-Manyon Crau area, where 1868workers accidentally found the remains of ancient man, which almostnot differ from the modern. It was a discovery which proved thatkromanyontsi lived on the planet is 28 thousand years ago. Later archaeologistsfind reasonable parking rights in several places in Europe (near Kombo Capelloin France, and Dolny Przhedmosti Vestonitse in the Czech Republic Oberkassel in Germany).In Europe, the parking kromanyontsiv known in Africa, Asia, Australia and America.This gives scientists reason to claim that person at all reasonable rozselylasyacontinents of our planet.

Kromanyontsya distinguished from their ancestorshigh forehead, protruding chin, the absence of sharply illustrated nadbrivnyhrollers. Growth and structure of the body he almost did not differ from modern humans.Due to illness, poor nutrition, death while hunting for predators livedkromanyontsi an average of 30 years. Those dozhyvav to 50 yearsconsidered elderly.


2. Life andreasonable employment rights

One of the main lessons kromanyontsivremained hunting - Individual or zahinne. Dangerous weapon in the handsancient hunters had a spear, which enabled potsilyty prey at a safedistance. At first it was burnt and exacerbated by staff. Subsequently itattached to the tip and stone or bone, which sometimes had to drain groovesblood. A significant invention was a man of understanding Bone harpoon similar toChristmas tree - he had burrs on the sides, which inflicted more damage to prey.

During hunting zahinnohokromanyontsi scaring the beasts of fire and noise, drove them to the edge of the cliff. Animalszryvalys down, fell and broke, becoming easy prey to hunters. In the Czech Republic(Przhedmost) found the bones about 1 000 shot in such a waymammoths. In France (Solyutre) investigated the results of hunting horses. Nearfoot of Mount archaeologists found skeletons of nearly 40 000.

Survive a reasonable person helpedand fisheries. First person gathering seaweed and shellfish. Subsequentlylearned to kill fish by means of spears and harpoons, and finally catch itnets and poles. Kromanyontsi were making wooden boats from trunkfirst applying for the Tesla.

Over time, hunting toolsimproved. Between Mesolithic (IX-VIII centuries BC) initialman invented bow and arrow. AppearanceThis formidable weapon linked to climate change. Glacier retreat.Large animals adapted to cold have disappeared. The object of hunting rightswere reasonably small, timid animals and waterfowl. their potsilytyavailable only from a considerable distance.

Bow and arrow made foragingsafer and more effective. Successful hunt also helped spysometalka, which is twice increasedflight range weapon. Homo sapiens has made great progress in treatmentstone and bone. She improved tools of these materials: rubyla, sticks,knives. There were several ways to make them.

Already in the late Paleolithic man was able torozscheplyaty flint two ways: by a blow on preparation and pressing.Vidschepleni plates used as knives and comb. Such processing flinteconomized material, which was getting smaller.

In the Mesolithic spread productionsmall (up to 2 cm)sharp stones, which scientists call them crystals. put them in woodenand horn-rimmed, which was comfortably in the hand.

Life depended on kromanyontsivmovement of large herd animals on which they hunted. Summer kromanyontsifollowed them, perepochyvayuchy at the premises. This time of year they lived in smalldwellings, made from large poles and skins. People hide from the winter cold innatural caves and built their own dwellings.


3. Beginningof society

Modern scientists, watchingbehavior of apes, have found that primitive people as well asand their ancestors to survive were forced to unite in primitive human herd. They hunted together on prey, collectedplants, care for children, protected from predators. Gradually turned into a flockresistant to the organization - the original community. And about30 thousand years BC formed families. These included people who were descended from a common ancestor -relatives. Family - A large group of relatives who lived together, worked,led economy, have common cause Archaeologists believethat confirmation of the families of the dwellings are large dimensions of human latePaleolithic. In this home lived a large family - 10-20 people.

Obtained during the hunting, fishingand food gathering were common, were distributed equally among all the family.Led the life of the families whose members have equal rights, most experienced people.

Numerous female figures that areArchaeologists found the ancient parks, confirming the high authority of women inpeervisnomu society. From the women depended on family life - she kept stocksfood, birth and care of children. On the female was determined to belongkind. So about 30 thousand years ago formed a new social organization - birth parent community. This periodcalled matriarchy, thattranslated means "mother power". He became one of the stages of initialsociety. Prehistory initial stage of developmenthumanity, signs of which were: teamwork, joint ownership, egalitariandistribution of food and property.





Female head with tusks  mammoth. Brassempluyi, France


Statuette of tusks  mammoth. Gagarin

Paleolithic "Madonna".

Villendorf, Germany





Questions and Tasks

1. What are the mainexternal differences neandertaltsyaand human understanding?

2. Whatthe most important inventions made in person Paleolithic and Mesolithic?

3. Whatdifferent family from the human herd?

4. Compare the living conditions of the originalpeople before, during and after the Ice Age.

5. What was a public policymatriarchy?




The emergence of man and hissettlement on the land.

Primitive farmers and pastoralists