§ 4. The birth of civilization. EpochCopper and bronze
1. Copper Age and Bronze Age
In Neolithic times, mankind has madehuge step forward in its development. During this time, developed agriculture andcattle. Food and handicraft products in those placesEarth, where they had a favorable climate and fertile land, has reached such a number thatgranted the possibility to feed more people. The emergence of crafts - pottery andWeaving - gave new signs of life of primitive man. Further developmentneed of increasing the number of different implements. Stone, asmaterial for manufacturing, no longer satisfy the new needs of humanity. And thenman began to look for, what to replace it. The natural material that had otherproperties than stone, wood, bone, has been copper. In primitive times itoccurrence on the ground in pure form. The period when he learnedhandle and use copper, called copper-stone age, or Bronze Age(V–IV thousand BC). At first, people tried to handlecopper as well as stone - beat. Shock piece of copper is rozkolyuvavsya andonly changed form. After primitive man realized that copper should notbeat and beat. Forge metal began about 7 thousand BC
Nearly 2 thousand years untilpeople learned to smelt copper from ore. First metal vyplavlyaly in those furnaces inwhich burnt pottery. Later they built a special long steelfurnace. It is unlikely that the transition from ductile to melting was accidental, since copper mayrozplavylas was required temperature is 700-800 C °. Afterwards she startedsmelt from ore. In nature copper ores in combination with small stones lookbluish color. Ancient metallurgy could put up a stone ovenand see that most of the stone disappeared, and he got in pure copperform. Perhaps, as the man opened the way extraction of copper from ore. Scientistsbelieve that in this way the metal began to receive in different places almostsimultaneously. About vyplavlyannya copper ore evidence found by archaeologists in the ancientmines tools - Kyle of horn, copper axes and so on.
У III BC ancient metallurgists, probably in an attempt to copperstrength, adding to her various additives until the notice that it is strongerbecomes with the addition of another metal - tin. Alloy of copper and tin is called bronze.It was valuable property that it is easier than copper, removed into shape.Thus began Bronze Age (III–PreBC).
In the II millennium BC was inventedvyplavlyannya way of iron ore. At first it was krytsya - iron with anumber of impurities. Chevron krytsyu forged and made from it implementsand weapons.
Mastered metals, man beganmake them parts of implements and weapons. The need for copper andbronze ware has steadily increased, thus increasing demand for people who couldprocessed metals.
In Eneolithic was another weightychange in human life - separated from cattle farming. Scientistscalled this process first social division of labor. That is, some tribeswere only cattle. First they pastured cattle near their settlements, andwith the increase of the number moved in search of new pastures. Thus conditionsmanagement led to another tribal herdsmen lifestyle - nomadic.
Farmers, by contrast, hadstay fertile land, to lead sedentary lives. Cattle, they were kept inhis house, gave them meat, milk, hides, wool. Over 5 thousandyears ago, farmers have learned to harness the cattle in ralo, and thenplow for plowing fields. This facilitated the work, accelerated and improved cultivationland, increased yields.
Invention in the Bronze Age was the wheelanother step towards perfection and complication of implements and devices thatfacilitate human life. Carts, put on wheels, helping farmersLOAD and herders travel long distances. However, complicationstools, metalworking and crafts demanded rapid development of humanmore knowledge, skill, and experience. Among farmers and ranchersvyokremlyuvalysya masters who were only craft. It was secondsocial division of labor: craft separated from other classes -Agriculture and animal husbandry.
2. Decaytribal communities
During the Neolithic keptcollective ownership of land, pasture, forest, still was a need forjoint working family, join the team skills. Livestock, tools andhousehold items were owned by individual families. All manufactured productsAgriculture and animal husbandry, handicrafts and distributed Legally Harvested gamebetween relatives - members of the community.
Number of people at a family communitydepended on the presence or absence of land suitable for farming,pasture lands for hunting. If it was impossible to feed all the familydivided into smaller families that vidselyalysya, learning new land. But families are notporyvaly ties among themselves and united in an emergency to protect itsproperty and land. United by their common language and, to facilitate communication betweenmembers of families, sharing knowledge and experience. All these families wastribe.
Childbirth community from time to timemoved or changed fields because land lost fertility. Samepastoralists and endured hundreds and sometimes thousands of miles in search of better pastures.In addition, and began fighting real wars between tribes for productsAgriculture and animal husbandry, handicrafts and precious metals. In theserefuges and the war was mixing of tribes and genera. Now in onevillage lived not only relatives but also people who did not belong to this genus, but wereonly neighbors. It formed neighboring communities, whose members were not relatives,but together owned land, distributing it among individual families togetherused pastures, forests and other resources, jointly decidingmost important kind of case.
Unlike tribal communities inNeighbours certainty shall private property - property family or individualrights in tangible assets. Some families have worked better, someone helpedhey, someone has been successful in wars or nahabnishym, selecting property in others.So gradually accumulated wealth in a few.There rich and poor.
Employment in agriculture has become more difficult andcomplex and was based mostly on the shoulders of men. Gradually, and Power in kind andtribes moved to the man - a father who was headed kind. Such a systemscientists call Patriarchate which translated from Greek means"Parent power". Patriarch was the elder, who led a common cause -construction of canals, sanctuaries and worship of deities. In his handsfocused much of the products manufactured communities, which he rozporyadzhavsya.Power eventually began to share in inheritance, and status in the tribe was determinedfamily ties with elders. There is social inequality.
In addition to the complicationeconomic life of some community members have become involved in the organizationconstruction, agricultural work, exchange, creation of foodreserves, protection from neighbors and others. That there was a layer of peoplelives are governed communities. During the tribal wars led armedcongregation was the leader, who was elected with duzhyh and Authority memberstribe. Later influential among them concentrated in the handswar booty, slaves and, eventually, power.
3. Early city
All these changes in the life of ancientSociety began formation of the first civilizations. Signs thatancient society acquired the new, higher level of development were: the emergence of citiesformations, stratification, a certain level of culture.
The transition to civilization occurred infavorable for farming and cattle breeding parts of our planet. Socradle of civilization, according to most scientists were in an area where there wereagriculture. This fertile valley of the rivers Nile, Euphrates and Tigris, Indus and Ganges,Yellow River and Yangtze.
In these areas there firstcity. They were built on the site of ancient settlements of farmers and ranchers,number of residents in their growing. In these settlements, except for farmers,cattle farmers, artisans, elders focused, priests, military leaders.The settlement was surrounded by fortifications - moats, ramparts, a palisade, and evenbrick or stone walls.
The city already had a clear division: in hiscenter housed the shrine dedicated to the gods, houses the richestresidents around - housing ordinary congregation, artisans workshops. Rightcalled the first city on the planet "win" many ancient cities,eg Jericho in Palestine, Mohenjo-Daro in India, Chatal-Huyuk in Turkey etc..
The old city, remains of which archaeologistsexcavated in a hill-Chatal Huyuk, existed in the Neolithic period, more than 9 thousandyears ago. It was an area of 13 hectares, it lived from 2 to6 thousand persons. The city was built up in small houses with bricks of source.In each house there were several small rooms that went into great roomarea of 18-20 m2.Along the walls housed the increase, in which sat, and slept under whichburying the dead.
Buildings have windows but no doorsIt was therefore belonged to them by ladder through a hole in the flat roof.Therefore, this settlement is also called the "city of the door upon the housetops."
Extraordinary interest is over40-Huyuka Chatal sanctuaries. They opened the unknown to the spiritual worldprimitive farmers. Shrines had 4-5 rooms, the walls weredecorated with paintings and clay reliefs. In addition to the large reliefs on the wallssanctuaries found ancient murals of famous science. made in their thousands VIBC In temples found a large number of stone and clay figurines,probably brought into the gift of the gods.
The main goddess of the ancient inhabitantsChatal-Huyuka was Mother Earth or Mother Goddess, which they portrayed asyoung women, women and mothers and old women, accompanied by bird deaths - neck.Male deity portrayed as a young man or mature man with a beard andriding Bykov.
Living Chatal-Huyuka were skillfulfarmers, 14 species of cultivated plants, the main of which - wheat,barley and peas. They were engaged in ranching and hunting. Wizardsproduced extremely sophisticated stone products: polished mirrorsobsidian, stone beads with holes in which barely passes the current point.It was developed weaving. Decent surprise masterful wooden vessels that itresidents enjoyed Chatal-Huyuka. Found in the burial preparationsshovels, stone mirrors, shells, which kept cosmetic substances, paintfor eyelashes and eyebrows, blusher with baskets and more.
All these results show a highquality of life of city residents.
Around the first cities graduallyunited the community to jointly solve the economic problems - aagricultural work, construction of canals and dams, constructionpalaces and temples. United them and the need to resist encroachment of neighboringcommunities on their fertile lands and pastures.
Since the union of communities and focus oncities of large numbers of people there was a need for new methods of management andcertain rules (laws) that would uporyadkovuvaly society thatmuch more complicated. Among people close to the elders and leaders,vyokremylysya group of people whose duty was to manage the city, collecttaxes, manage, host and organize the construction of canals, churches,palaces.
To power in the cities came to the strongestand richest tribal leaders and elders. Their authority has rested not only onauthority, but also on military force.
Thus, in the era of ancient copper and bronzecities with areas around them in the developed areas of agriculture,cattle industry and gained the first signs of independence. They were: supremepower in the person of the king, the army, a group of people who were engaged exclusively Organizationcity life (ie, those officials now call) a territorythey believed their borders and which protected.
With the expansion of the largest andthe city turned into the strongest economic, military and administrative centerspowerful of the ancient world.
State - Wayorganization of social, economic and cultural life of the people.
Questions and Tasks
1. Explain what the first andsecond major division of labor.
2. Why, first city?
3. What Neighbourhooddifferent from the tribal community?
4. What changes inhuman life occurred during the Bronze Age and the Bronze Age?
5. Why in the valleys of largerivers have the first state?
6. What has caused the emergencepatriarchy?