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§ 39. Sports competitions in ancient Greece. Olympics (textbook)

§ 39. Sports competitions in AncientGreece. Olympics

1. The legendary and historical past

Inbeautiful Greek city of Olympia in times of Homer in honor of the god Zeus wasestablished sports, known to all mankind, - the Olympic Games.The ancient Greeks spoke differently about it. Some said that the competition wasFounded by the same supreme god after his victory over his father Kronos. Others asserted that the father was the Olympic Gamesallegedly the son of Zeus, the great Greek hero Hercules. There were also other legendsbirth of these sports.

RevivedOlympic Games in 776, the BC king MILF.Tough times were then, Greece has suffered from wars and pestilence. King Long MILF thought, how can rectify these ills. I decidedask about it in the gods. Departed MILF in Delphi tooracle helped him. Pythia delivered the king will of the gods. She said: "Tostop the war and destroy the disease, should MILFrevive the Olympic Games. " Heeded the king oracle. He summonedSpartan Lycurgus ruler. Together with him MILFmade and signed a truce, which at the time of ukladalosyacompetition, and announced Olympia sacred city, where it was forbidden to go toweapons. To the Greeks always remembered it, the agreement text was engraved on theBronze disc, which remained in Olympia.

Onlyunmarried women were allowed to be spectators during the Olympic Games. Married,except priestess of the goddess Demeter, These sportscompetition prevented.


2. The Olympic Games

OlympicsGames were arranged every four years and lasted five days. First theywere only part of the celebration in honor of the god Zeus and other gods, which worshipancient Greeks. Then they became separate sports. At the Gamesmembers and guests came from all over Greece and Asia Minor. At three monthsstopped any military action that everybody could freelyGetting to Olympia. In sporting event attended onlyGreek state's citizens. But other residents of policies, as well aswomen, foreigners were only spectators.

Beforebeginning of the game participants, their parents and teachers before the statue of Zeus madeoath that during the competition they will abide by the laws and customsOlympic competitions. Initially only fought championship runners. In the firstOlympics they overcame an Olympic stage, which is equal to 192 m. Runners sharedto group winners competed among themselves and reach the best ending.History kept the name, the champion of Olympiad 776 BC Him; Koreb of Elidy.

WinnersOlympic Games - olimpionikiv - Awardedwreath of twigs of wild oil. At the same name declared olimpionika,his father's name and name of the city, where he was born. At home withgreat respect greeted the Olympic winnersgames. They had various privileges they were elected to leadership positions. With 540BC in honor of olimpionikiv startedbuild statues in their home countries.

Graduallyprogram of Olympic Games was increased: the distance runners for increasedtwice, added a race in a long running (24 stages) and pentathlon (pentatlon). Subsequently, the program of Olympic Games added yetknockdown and racing chariots. In 394, the BC Romansabolished the Olympic Games. Only in 1896 topeace and harmony Frenchman Pierre de Coubertininitiated recovery Olympics.


Terms and Notions

Pentatlon Pentathlon: Javelin, Long Jump, wrestling, running,discus.


Sicilian historian Timey in264 (Or 360), the BC launched calendarfor the Olympics. Soon it was recognizedin throughout ancient Greece.


I wonder

In the Olympic Games in Ancient Greece were held and other sportscompetition. There Istmiyski, Nemeyski andPythiangames. They were held once every two or three years and differed fromOlympics in a combination of athletic, equestrian, poetry and musiccompetition. Istmiyski game was conducted with 582 BCkorynfiyany. Nemeyskithere were people with initiative Argos. Pythian Games are held as residents Delphi.Past winners received a crown of laurel sacred.


Questions and Tasks

1. Whysports of ancient Greece called the Olympics?

2. Who in Ancient Greece called olimpionikamy?

3. What sports games were the Olympic program Games?