§ 15. Byzantine Empire
· How did the Byzantine Empire?
· On most powerful emperors.
· What is the role in Byzantine history mankind?
· Why is collapsed and died as Empire?
1. Birth of Byzantium
The value of the history of Byzantine empire in world history is overwhelming. Golden bridge " between ancient history and new times call it historians. Byzantines preserved in the "Dark Ages" of the early Middle Ages achievements of ancient culture and by combining them with the ideals of Christianity, gave their neighboring nations.
In the ancient Greek colony Byzantine emperor ConstantineAnd Great founded 330 Constantinople - the new capital of the Roman Empire. By name Byzantium and later historians have given the name of the Eastern Roman Empire. However, most Byzantines called themselves Romeo (Romans), and its State romeyskoyu - The successor to the Roman tradition Empire.
Sometimes the appearance of the Eastern Roman Empire or Byzantium, see 395, when Emperor Theodosius the Great peredilyv empire between his sons. During the barbarian invasion cunning Emperors of Constantinople managed to save their possessions and to direct barbarians on earth of the Western Roman Empire. Then, when Western Europe lay in ruins of the Byzantine empire flourished and fixings.
Byzantium was a multinational State. Its population were Greeks, Syrians, Jews, Egyptians, Armenians, Georgians and other peoples. Byzantium as "country towns", which in During the heyday of empire accrue hundreds. The largest cities were Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch, where lived for 200 - 300 thousand souls. The capital of the empire - Constantinople - was located on the shores of the Bosphorus, where the most important crossroads of trade routes: the sea - from the Black Sea to Mediterranean and overland - from Europe to Asia. Conducted trade with Byzantium China, Iran, India, Western and Eastern Europe.
According to its political system Byzantium was a monarchy. Plenitude of the power belonged vasylevsu(Greek name of the emperor), who was "following God and following after God." Christian Church supported the power of the emperor, has seen his defender church and demanded that subjects give him bohorivni honors. To address the emperor had to kneel, the king's statue was to be giving tribute to the icon. But important feature was what was considered sacred only the position of the emperor, not the person. The emperor's throne is inherited, and elected army synklitom (Greek name of the Senate) and the people.
Over the years the Byzantine throne were her soldiers, villagers and children, and equerry. To make his son heir to the throne, Emperor had to palter and declare him his life co. However, this does not guarantee that the son inherits the throne. Any riot, Beep, a lucky grab the throne and is supported by the army, was considered a legitimate ruler. Lack of continuity of established order led to the throne that of the 109 people who occupied the throne of the Byzantine Empire from 395, the by 1453, only 34 have died a natural death. The rest lost power or forced resignation, or violent death.
Simultaneously power of the emperor was absolute and unlimited. He was above the law, life and rozporyadzhavsya property of his subjects. Emperor ruled the country through a large number officials but also synklitu, which was advisory body to the emperor. He was and Head of State and senior legislator and head of government, and supreme judge, and Chief of the Army.
Periodization of the history of the Byzantine Empire
395 was - The middle of VII century.
The emergence of the Byzantine Empire through the Eastern Roman Empire and its transformation into a large multinational state, which had similar themselves. The most powerful emperor of this period was Justinian I. In consequence of his gains of the Mediterranean Sea again turned into "Roman lake".
The second half of VII - first half of the ninth century.
The worsening situation of the empire through the Arab conquest and the beginning invading Slavs. The territory of the empire was reduced almost by half, collapsed city. A "varvaryzatsiya " Empire - "barbarians, the Slavs" settled in the lands of Byzantium and became the subjects of the emperor. Significant role in a difficult time for the empire played emperors new Isavriyskoyidynasty. The founder of the dynasty of Leo III Isavr managed Arabs to stop seizing land empire and actually saved her from death.
The second half of the conference -
middle of XI.
The reign of Macedonian dynasty. "Golden time" Byzantium. It was an era revival of the empire. Again, the city grew and developed trade ties with the West and East, and Constantinople became the richest city in Europe. The peak of that era believed Byzantine rule Emperor BasilII. Nearly continuous war that led emperor, turned Byzantium into the most powerful state in Europe, but simultaneously exhausted her strength, causing it next fall. In 1071 Turkish Seljuks Empire inflicted a crushing defeat and took it territory in Asia Minor.
1081 - 1204 рр.
Time's new rise of Byzantium. It can be called "the era Komnenos ": Emperors of this dynasty for the next hundred years again revived the glory and power of empire. Flagship personality of the time And Alex was Komnenos. He was able, in times when Byzantium death seemed inevitable, avoid it. Century Komnenos confusion over that in 1204 led to capture of Constantinople by crusaders and formation in place of the whole empire number of states.
Liberation of Constantinople in 1261 Emperor Michael Paleologus from the power of the Crusaders. Empire reminiscent of the old and tired man lives. Weakened by internal strife and Turkish attacks Byzantium increasingly downfall. However, its culture reached peak growth, so this time as "paleolohivskymRenaissance. In 1453 Constantinople was captured by Osman Turks.
2. Byzantium during the reign of Justinian I Great
Europe in the second half VІ Art. Byzantium during the reign of Justinian
Over the years of Justinian I (527 - 565 years)The Byzantine Empire reached the height of its power. This emperor was trying to restore the Roman Empire in the former range.
Future emperor born 482 in a poor peasant family. His uncle, Justin vysluzhyvsya a soldier to the commander, seized the throne and brought it closer to his nephew Imperial Court. Without the seed, the emperor Justinian made co.
Justinian was picturesque personality. He combined in himself, like an ancient god Janus, the two face. He received a good education, was industrious, determined, persistent and to talented leadership. Allow any person to express their own views and never showed their displeasure outside. However, Justinian, by to contemporaries, was cunning and treacherous, skillfully concealed his anger. Dangerous and two-faced, he shed tears with their true feelings joy or sorrow, and scenic at the right time. He is always deceiving: skripyvshy agreement worst oath could quickly forget about them. He was considered an infidel friend and most cruel enemy. He never felt before zniyakovilosti those who planned to destroy. Their behavior, language, appearance Justinian resembled more barbarian than the emperor. Owned by him only thirst - under his power to restore the ancient splendor of the Roman Empire.
Justinian was responsible for intelligence and his wife treacherously Theodore - Daughter guard animals in the circus and circus itself actress. Beautiful and charming Theodore small iron will and in case of difficulty has always supported her husband. In the 527 was, in death of his uncle, Justinian and Theodore were declared Emperor and Empress of the Byzantine Empire.
Emperor Justinian з by post. Mosaic VI Art.
By order of Emperor Justinian I in 528 - 534 years was entered into the collection of laws, "Digest of Public law, where combined the ancient Roman legal norms and moral values of Christianity. "Code ..." proclaimed the equality of all citizens before the law. Although slavery was not abolished, but was forbidden to kill slaves and they got to free. The laws of Justinian urivnyuvaly the rights of man and woman banned divorce, condemned by the Christian church. The "vault" proclaimed the idea unlimited and absolute power of the emperor: "the will of the emperor - the source laws. It confirms the right of inviolability of private property. "Code ..." became a model for developing the laws of most countries in Western Europe in the XII - Fourteenth century.
Conversion, started Justinian demanded considerable resources. The growth of tax abuse bribery and imperial officials called the uprising was 532 in Constantinople. Rebellion was named "Nike" slogan by rebels (Nika! - "Win!"). Eight days dominated by insurgents in the city. Justinian even decided escape, but the advice Theodora left, announcing, it is better to die than have lost power. Emperor bribed leaders of the rebellion, and using mercenary troops barbarians crushed the uprising, about 35 thousand perebyvshy people.
Prydushyvshy rebellion Justinian proceeded to the main goal of his life - restoring Roman Empire at the former border. Contributed to his ideas that barbarian kingdoms in the West have experienced while deep crisis.
In 534 Byzantine army led by an outstanding general Velyzariyem Vandals defeated and captured North Africa. More Army Velyzariya, Taking about. Sicily, vderlasya to Italy. Significant role played by the Christian Byzantines support church and the population of Italy. In 536, the army Velyzariyacame to Rome without a fight, and for three years the Byzantines occupied the capital of barbarians - Ravenna. It seemed that Justinian nearly reached the cherished purpose, but here to Byzantium, using its troops stay in Italy attacked the Slavs and Persians. The Emperor recalled Velyzariyaand sent him with an army to defend the eastern borders. Commander managed and this task. Before the conquest of land in the West Justinian returned only 552, the While restore border of the Roman Empire since the emperor Constantinefailed, but increased the territory of the state nearly doubled.
During the reign of Justinian I in Constantinople was built church of St. Sofia. His reports, he started 532, provided 10 thousand people in 5 years. Outside the house looked normal, but impressed in size. Giant mosaic arch diameter of 31 meters as if hung in air without any support. This is achieved by a large bath kept at two pivbanyah, Each of which, in turn, relied three small pivbani. The four pillars which held up the arch, were hidden, but clearly only vydnilysya triangular sail between the arches. Cross on vault symbolized God's care and protection of the empire. When 537 was osvyachuvavsya temple, the emperor Justinian I, ran its majestic beauty, exclaimed: "Praise the Lord, who inspired me to make such a deal! Solomon, I surpassed thee! "
Mosaic icon of the temple sv.Sofiyi in Constantinople. ІХ Art.
For the Board Emperor Justinian and the Byzantine Empire became a Christian oasis civilization among the savage world.
3. Byzantium and the Arabs. Lion Board III Isavra. Iconoclasm
In the first half of VII century. near the borders of Byzantium, a new enemy - Arabs. Under the banner of "holy war in the name of Allah," they began a rapid Byzantine conquest of the eastern provinces. In 636 - 642 years Byzantium lost Syria, Palestine, Upper Mesopotamia, and even after half a century - and North Africa. Compared to the era of empire and Justinian decreased threefold.
Soon the Arabs put an end to domination and the Byzantine fleet on the seas. The founder of the dynasty Umayyad caliph Muaviyacreated a powerful Arab fleet, which took from the Byzantines Island of Crete, Sicily, territory on the coast Balkans. Since 672, the Muaviya repeatedly sought take Constantinople. However, reflect the Byzantines Arabs from the city walls, and their fleet was destroyed by "Greek fire".
"Greek fire" - the secret weapon Byzantine Empire - invented Syrian architect and a chemist Kallikon. It was burning mixture, which under pressure to cast a special pump or poured in sinks and threw them out of catapults on enemy ships. The formula of this mixture so carefully concealed that even now all its components are unknown. Arguably, "Greek fire" containing tar, sulfur, nitrate and oil. Implications use "Greek fire" were awful. The burning oil liquid made a everything to ash, it was impossible to extinguish and escape from it swimming: a mixture of burning on the water. Enemies of dreaming to unravel the mystery of "Greek fire, but even capturing it ships equipped Byzantines, were not able to use because they do not know the components of the mixture. For centuries, this knowledge weapons ensured victory Byzantines, especially by sea.
In 717, the Arabs started the third Constantinople huge storm overland army and navy of 1800 ships. And thanks to determined action Byzantine army led by Emperor Leo III Isavrom (717 - 741's) enemy lucky enough to stop and abandon the city. Ships since 1800 the Arabs left only five, with 200 thousand soldiers - vryatuvalosya only 30 thousand
The value of victory of Leo III Isavra over the Arabs great. Successful defense of Constantinople halted progress on Arab land Byzantine Empire and saved Christian Europe from Muslim invasion.
The fight against the Arabs encouraged Leo III Isavra reorganize the Byzantine army. Emperor decided to create a horse army. However, the costs of weapons cavalryman. Byzantines decided to borrow the experience of the Arabs: they handed out land to peasants that treated them, soldiers who for profit from these lands could buy horses and weapons. Implementation of this idea required the land for free distribution. Great land owned by the church. Ability to get them appeared in Emperor by iconoclast movement, which became the pretext for dispute between supporters and opponents of honoring icons, crosses and saints Relics. Opponents argued honoring icons that worship Icon is idolatry, for it is worship things and not God. Supporters honoring the icons that correspond to that in icons and other holy objects This power is present. Leo III decided to take advantage of these disputes. In 726, the He issued a decree banning the worship of icons and began to select lands in monasteries. Laity explained that God should honor, not his image. Sites selected by the Byzantine monastery lands granted soldiers cavalryman. Population split Byzantium: military nobility supported the emperor and most of the common people and clergy - condemned. Fighting between supporters and opponents of the continued veneration of icons more than a century. Finally, the 843 won admirers icons: the cult of icons was recovered, and sentenced iconoclast church. This fight was lost Vilik G. masterpieces of Byzantine art. Movement iconoclast Leo III made it possible Isavru a Byzantine cavalry that turned into a social group such as Western knights.
4. Board Macedonian dynasty
The founder of the Macedonian dynasty became emperor BasilAnd (867 - 886 years). He was born into a peasant family during one of the Bulgarian raids fell into captivity and long lived among their captors. After return to Byzantium Basil groom settled in imperial stables. With her beauty, intelligence, strength and other abilities He did incredible career: from groom rose to co-emperor MichaelIII. The Emperor quickly became to feel the danger from the co and ordered him to kill. But Basilsprytnishym was: killed Michael III became emperor himself. To avoid losing power, he instituted the order in which the throne could inherit only members of the ruling dynasty. This representatives Macedonian dynasty ruled the Byzantine Empire to 1081
Doba reign Macedonian dynasty of Byzantium was flourishing future.Constantinople became the largest in the then Trade Center and Byzantine merchants subordinated all trade between East and West. Exactly thanks to the development of trade to the treasury of the emperor received such profits which had none of the kings of Western Europe.
At the end of the ninth century. Byzantium been active with the Christianization of neighboring barbarian peoples. Messengers sent to the Patriarch of Constantinople to bring the light Christian faith to the Serbs, Bulgarians and Velykomoravskustate. The preachers of Cyril and Methodius created the Slavic alphabet and translated Bible in a Slavic language, created for the spread of Christianity among Slavs. It was then adopted Christianity Kyiv prince Askold.
Since the second half of the ninth century. Byzantium attacked and began the protracted war for the return of lost territories. The greatest success achieved emperor BasilII Bolharobiytsya (976 - 1025's).
Board Basil II began with hard times. On land empire began raiding Bulgarians. King of Bulgaria Samuel, using a long Byzantine riots and rebellion against the nobility Emperor conquered eastern part of Bulgaria and Serbia. When insurgents 987 was launched attacks on Constantinople, the Emperor asked for help to Prince Vladimir of Kievan Rus. Ruska helped wife of Emperor crush the rebellion. To consolidate the alliance with the powerful Byzantine Prince Emperor agreed to give him his daughter Anna on condition that Vladimir accept the Christian faith. Prydushyvshy rebellion BasilII began a long war against Bulgaria. Only in 1014 he achieved decisive victory over the Bulgarians and defeated the army of the king Samuel. But this was not enough for the emperor. Basil II committed an act of unprecedented cruelty, for which received the nickname Bolharobiytsi. He ordered 15 thousand eyes make holes prisoners leaving for every hundred eyed with one eye. When King Samuel saw the army blind men came to Bulgaria, he could not stand this show and died of horror. Basil II annexed weakened Bulgarian kingdom of empire. Simultaneously, the emperor led the successful war in Asia and Transcaucasia planned release of Arab Sicily, but while preparing for the raid died.
Siege of Constantinople Bulgarians
Basil II BolharobiytsyaByzantine Empire did most powerful state in Europe, but it caused decline, spending all the forces of the empire to conquer new lands. Attenuation Byzantium was one of the reasons for its defeat in the fight against new enemies of the Turkish Seljuks.
5. Byzantine and Turkish Seljuks. Century Komnenos
Continuous wars that led to Byzantium beginning of XI century., exhausted her. Empire has remained strong and powerful but as a tired man, needed rest.
During the wars in Byzantium appeared powerful to know that p'yanyly win and who was convinced that could manage the state better than the emperor. Byzantine commanders deployed struggle for the throne. Within 30 - early 80's Article XI. on Byzantine emperors throne visited in 1910, 6 of which shifted power. While military leaders struggling for power, the army had weakened, and suddenly Empire found itself surrounded by enemies. In the Balkans Black Sea steppes invaded Pechenegs bands and Bulgarians. Normans took possession of the Byzantines in the past Italy. Was the most dangerous, however, an enemy that was advancing on the eastern border Empire - Turkish Seljuks.
Turks Seljuks belonged to the Turkic peoples, the ancient motherland of which was in lowland rivers Amu Darya, near the Aral Sea. Hence one of the Turkic tribes headed by the leader Seljuk migrated to the west. Gradually Turkish Seljuks conquered the other Turkic and Turkish tribes and began conquest of neighboring nations. Only half a century they captured most of the Front Asia, Iraq, Iran, Central Asia. Even the ruler of the Arab caliphate, Baghdad Caliph, was forced to surrender to the Turks and recognize their leader Torhul-Beck sultan and king of East and West, having merely a title of spiritual head of Muslims. From the Turks conquered the Iranians converted to Islam and formed a major new Muslim state Seldzhutskyy Sultanate.
Byzantine emperor Roman IV had to start in 1068 real war against the Turks, who devastated land empire. Three years of the war yielded no consequences: Byzantines were not killed, but did not get any victory. The new campaign in spring 1071, the emperor decided at any cost to achieve victory. But his clashes with the Turks near the Armenian city Mantsykerta killing the Byzantine army. The emperor and all the generals captured. Sultan Alp-Arslan(Brave Lion) released only after the emperor's consent to pay great tribute to the Seljuks.
The news of the defeat at Mantsykertom overwhelmed the Byzantines - beaten emperor lost his throne, and the treaty with the Seljuks were dropped.
The Turks, having received no promises, they removed conquer the Byzantine possessions in Asia Minor. On these lands they formed state Rumskyy Sultanate, or Room (Rome) - The so-called conquerors of Byzantium. Now with their possessions they could look at the palaces of Constantinople, which stretches from opposite side of the bay.
The threat of imminent death Byzantium sparked a new wave of struggle for the imperial throne. Finally, in 1081 came to power experienced military leader Alex Komnenos, who founded a new dynasty Komnenos (1081 - 1204). This dynasty a century back to its former glory and Byzantium power. A key role in the revival of Byzantium played an Alex And Komnenos (1081 - 1118's).
Emperor Alexei Komnenos. Mosaic XII century.
A memoir Anna Komnenos about his father
"Alex was not very high, and the breadth of his shoulders consistent growth. Standing position he exercised a special impression on the environment, but when angry blinking eyes, sat on the imperial throne, that was like a lightning: such a great light went from his face and from the entire body. Arc vyhynalysya his black eyebrows, from under which his eyes looked angry and yet humbly. Shine his eyes, shining face, a noble line of the cheeks, which namichavsya flush, both frightened and encouraged people. Broad shoulders, strong hands, tuck chest - all inspired his heroic appearance in most people's admiration and surprise. In the men combined beauty, refinement, dignity, and unsurpassable greatness. If he participated in a conversation, it seemed that his mouth broadcasting fiery orator Demosthenes. Flow of the arguments he captured ears and soul, was superb and unsurpassed in speeches as well as in war equally able to throw the javelin and prycharovuvaty listeners. "
What would make strong impression Alex Komnenos on the environment?
When Alex and Komnenosdostupyvsya to power, in the capital were only 300 soldiers. Based on its supporters, he crushed the rebel nobility of Constantinople, confiscated her property and got hired army. Had even the emperor, for the first time in Byzantine history, with the assistance of Western kingdoms. (You already know that the request for help prompted the Byzantine Roman pope to the organization of the Crusades).
Based on the newly created army, Alex began his war against the enemies Empire. At first he drove from the eastern borders of the Turks, then went against Norman. After four years of war in 1085 Alex Norman and won forced them to leave the Balkan Peninsula. Through diplomacy, he coped with the threat of Pechenegs. Thanks to generous gifts, the emperor did its allies other nomads - Polovtsian, and forces which broke Pechenegs. After these victories in the Byzantine Empire it was quiet. When in 1096 to Constantinople troops arrived first Crusaders, then their help and Alex Komnenos no longer needed.
Son Alex And John Komnenos (1118 - 1143's) started to Byzantium struggle with his trading rival Venice. By order of the Emperor Venetian merchants were thrown into prison and deprived them shopping privileges. Apparently, no one among the Byzantines did not have imagined what the consequences will lead this event in the future.
While the empire led hard struggle, along with its eastern border once again became Rumskyy Sultanate. In 1076 Emperor Manuel I began a grand campaign against the Turks, but in a battle near the city Mirionkefala Filled was crushed them. Byzantium lost their holdings in Asia Minor. Last century Byzantine glory gone: the empire in all its borders moved to defense.
6. The disaster of 1204
After the death of Manuel and Byzantium finally fell into decline. Beginning of cruel and bloody power struggle in which groups tried Byzantine nobility murder and deceit pave the way to the throne of his protege. Last emperor of the dynasty Komnenos Andronicus and (1183 - 1185's) zakryvavyv hands murder predecessor, fourteen Alexy II(1180 - 1183's), established in the country and the real terror was killed by angry crowd during a revolt in Constantinople. The new emperor was Isaac Angel (1185-1195 biennium). But dynasty "earth angels" appeared to be void.
The empire was split on the eyes. Hungarians captured Dalmatia, Normans again invaded the Balkans. Delivered from the power Byzantines and Bulgarians revived its statehood, independence and Serbs. But Isaac Angel, instead of taking care of the state, spent huge funds for the construction of magnificent buildings, the purchase of Eastern spices and clothes: it never wore the same clothes twice. Taking advantage of people's dissatisfaction, brother blinded emperor and took the throne, becoming Alexei III (1195-1204 рр). Isaac's son managed to escape Italy, where he addressed the knights, who were preparing for the Fourth Crusade, with to help him return the throne to his father, promising for it to conquer Byzantine church and the pope to pay a huge sum of money. What happened after You already know. For the first time the existence of "city Constantine "was captured by enemy. 20 thousand Crusaders captured the city of half a million people and plundered its treasures.
Earth Byzantium, captured crusaders, called Latin Romania (Romania called in Western Europe Byzantium) and divided into: Latin empire (or actually Romania) with its capital in Constantinople and dependent crusader state in the Balkans, possession Venice, Genoa and the Order ioannitiv. May 16, 1204 in St. Sofia crowned First Emperor Romania, one of the leaders of the Crusaders flandrskyy earl Baldwin.
In the conquered lands Latins established Western European orders for French model. The emperor was only first among other seniors. Across Romania emerged knightly castles, farmers lost personal freedom. New Patriarch of Constantinople became a Catholic. Complete replacement of all clergy and changes in religious rites by Roman model Latins were not done, understanding that it will cause resistance to the Byzantines.
7. Renaissance and deathByzantium
Latins could not conquer all, the Byzantines Byzantine province did desperate resistance. In the unbroken land where three Greek states that considered successor empire - NicaeaEmpire, Epirske kingdom and Trapezundskaempire. These states have launched the struggle for restoration of Byzantium, but join forces failed, questioning who will be the new emperor. Gradually, the leading role in the fight against the Latins came to Nicene Empire. The new emperor was chosen representative of family Theodore LaskarisaWho began the struggle for the revival of Byzantium. Theodore created a strong army, which broke Turkish Seljuks, and Navy, which began to return lost Marine possession of the empire.
Decisive progress in struggle for the restoration of Byzantium reached Niceneemperor John III Laskaris (1222 - 1254 years). For two years after the beginning of his reign, John III defeated troops Crusaders. John then gradually united under his power most former Byzantine lands.
During his reign the empire reached bloom that looked like old times its inhabitants. Developed, rural agriculture, handicrafts. To facilitate the development of crafts John forbade his subjected to wear foreign cloth and ordered to use only that done Byzantine masters.
Byzantine Empire was restored by Nicene Emperor Michael VIII Paleologus (1259 - 1282 years), the founder the last dynasty of Byzantine emperors.
Latins at the time of the Byzantines were many significant impacts, but still held Constantinople. To acquire it, the emperor and focused its efforts. For a long time he kept besieged Constantinople, but not it could take, and then ordered to put in a fortress near the city's garrisons, are constantly carried out raids against the Latins. Next year the squad Nicene Emperor, moving past Constantinople decided to once again scare the Latins. It so happened that all the forces of the Crusaders participated in the campaign against the Sea nikeytsiv, And city remained only a small detachment of the emperor. Nikeytsieasily captured the walls, opened the gates and let the others. So unexpectedly captured the Byzantine Constantinople. When the Crusaders returned then tried to get to the city, but were defeated and were forced to ships to return to Western Europe. Latin Romania ceased to exist.
August 15 1261 Michael VIII Paleologue the first Emperor restored the Byzantine Empire. However, power Byzantine emperors extended only to a part of the Balkan peninsula, small territory of Asia Minor and some islands in the Aegean.
Revived the empire once found herself face new threat - Turkish Osman, with whom she does not unable to cope. May 29, 1453 millennial empire collapsed. This date is some historians consider the end Middle Ages.
The Soviet scholar G.Kurbatov stated: "Had a huge impact on the development of Byzantine culture of European peoples In the Middle Ages. She kept them for the rich heritage of antiquity. In and this is of great historical significance of Byzantium.
8. Household Byzantines
Decline of Culture, held in the West after the barbaric invasions, not touched the Byzantine Empire. Life in the Middle Ages the Byzantines developed like the life of ancient Romans.
Byzantium remained a country of citiesWhere operating theaters, hippodrome, baths, water supply stored in ancient times. Later, when Byzantium began to decline, the appearance of cities has changed. Their territory has decreased, instead of well-planned streets were narrow and closely built-up streets.
Byzantine buildings were furnished, depending on income householder various furniture. Simple Byzantines were sitting on chairs at the tables and rested in the high chair - a Roman custom to eat lying disappeared. Clothing buried in chests. In the homes of the nobility were the furniture decorated with carvings, decorated precious stones and ivory. Beds and floors and carpets vkryvalysya brutal skins. Most homes nobility had glazed windows, opalyuvalasya roaster with coal oil lamps and publicized. Poor huddled poor in cells, where furniture could only be one packed rush mattress.
Byzantines usually ate twice a day. In the houses of notables were arranged a great feast, where guests were treated to wonderful meals. For most simple Byzantines were habitual eating boiled fish, beans, bread, cheese, various vegetables and fruits. In poshanivku were grape and fruit wines, which vhamovuvaly thirst, washed down with food treated, nastoyavshy on herbs from diseases.
Clothing Byzantines could determine which social class he belongs. Nobility wore clothing made from linen, wool, silk fabrics, decorated with ornaments. On top of feasting wear a long coat - Chlamydia. Customary dress was simple Byzantines chiton- Sack shirt, pants, boots and a short coat. Byzantine Women rich men used cosmetics: paint for eyelashes and eyelids, blush, whitewashed. Wealthy men and women wore much jewelry: rings, bracelets, fastenings on coats and more.
Ancient Romans paid much attention civil affairs, and for medieval Byzantine center of their lives was family. Married very early, at 14 - 15 years, sometimes earlier. Vinchalys in church. Divorce occurred very rarely, because there shvalyuvalysya church. Hard life, lack of good medical care were causing that most Byzantines survived only to 35. Longer lived, thanks to better living conditions Byzantine nobility.
Important role in life of the Byzantines occupied the Christian church. All the important events of human life were connected with religious ritual - Baptisms, weddings, funerals. Each house had an icon image of Christ, crucified on the cross. In the cities there were many temples. Several times a day Byzantine prayer: morning and evening prayer were required. Especially worship of God, believing her defender sinners, closer to people than Christ.
9. Byzantine Culture
Over the centuries the period of Byzantium created a powerful and original culture that has absorbed the ancient Roman tradition. In turn, she had great influence on neighboring nations, particularly southern and eastern Slavs.
From beginning to the end of empire Byzantine society existed a great respect for knowledge. Famous the phrase "academic world, and uneducated darkness" belongs Byzantine thinkers John Damascus. Ability to read and count were very common among the majority of Byzantium. Striving to acquire knowledge stimulated a continuing need for state-educated people necessary for renovation of public officials. Clerk in Byzantium was opportunity to embrace the high post, which opened the path to power and wealth.
The number of educated people in Byzantium much higher than Western European countries through an international network of schools were both free of charge - church, monastery and city where they could learn poor, and pay - private, Children Byzantine nobility. School divided into two stages: primary and secondary. The elementary school studied three major cycles of Sciences -tryvium ": Grammar dialectic and rhetoric. The average degree of predictedkvadrium ", which included the four main subjects: arithmetic, geometry, astronomy and music. In addition to these major science, in different schools additionally studied ethics, law, politics, philosophy of science. Students chose to study those schools where studied items that fit their own preferences. In the first half of IX century. at the imperial court in Constantinople has been opened high school. It taught, except for religious and secular sciences (mythology, history, literature). In 1054 opened in Constantinople the institution that by its level closer to the universities that have emerged much later in countries Western Europe.
Great achievements have been made by the Byzantines in the development of scientific knowledge. Scientific Leo mathematician, one the founders of algebra (he first started to use the alphabetic designations) Invented in the IX century. light telegraph to send messages over distance. With this invention in the capital to learn about the invasion of Arabs eastern borders of the empire. He also developed the automatic devices invoked in place with water. With their help throne of the emperor during ucht suddenly rose up. Simultaneously, the statues of lions that surrounded the throne, began to roar and beat their tails and metal birds - fly and twitter. This small "Performance" has always made an impression on foreigners terrific.
Emperor Constantine Porphyrogenitus (913 - 959 years) decided to gather all the knowledge that their humanity has accumulated since the beginning of his existence. Hundreds of scientists by Emperor began this colossal work. They wrote about 50 original "encyclopedias and treatises on individual agronomy, medicine, history, geography, art of war, diplomacy and other sciences. Himself emperor also wrote several works in this collection scientific knowledge of humanity. Work has reached us of the emperor on femy ", "On the leadership of the Empire" and "On the ceremony of the imperial court.
Byzantium was extremely high for once the level of construction equipment. You already know about the Church of Saint Nicholas. Sophia in Constantinople, built by Emperor Justinian I in Article VI. Erect it was perfectly possible only having the secrets of building case: the ability to produce solid bricks, high-quality mortar, conclude bricks, creating monumental dome and others.
The architecture was closely related to painting. Byzantine artists adorn the walls of temples frescoes- Water colors painted wet plaster and mosaics - images set colored stones or pieces of smalt (Multi-colored glass). The most outstanding examples of Byzantine mosaic art images were in the church of St. Sophia in Constantinople, the emperor's image Justinian and Empress Theodora in church San Vitale in Ravenna. High level of development reached Arts Icon - Pictorial image of Christ Dame and various biblical scenes on wooden boards. Icons not only decorated temples and villages and the Byzantines, their friends gave a sign special favor, took with him in military campaigns. Byzantines believed that icons, which moved as if a part of God's power, can protect people in hard time.
When Russia adopted Christianity, Byzantine culture began to spread among the Eastern Slavs. Appeared books, translated from Greek to Slavonic. Byzantine craftsmen built the first stone temples in Rus lands. Studied in the Byzantine mosaics Rusyches and secrets and iconography. They were gifted students and soon surpassed the teacher, as evidenced beautiful churches - Saint Sophia Cathedral in Kiev and Novgorod, churches and cathedrals in other cities of Russia.
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