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America in the XVIII century. (compendium)

America in the XVIII century.

After the discovery of America by Columbus the Spaniards conquered the southern part of North America. The remaining free spaces inhabited mainland Indian tribes. These relatively strict land not attracted the Spaniards. Meanwhile, in the north Atlantic coast of America drew attention to England, which has developed rapidly.

beginning of British colonization of North America was May 1607 While on the coast at the mouth of the river unknown to Europeans vysadylosya 120 settlers who were sent to London trading company. A year earlier it gave rights to the territory of King James I (po-anhl. - James). In his honor the settlers called the James River and built a fort - Jamestown. The first colony of England on American soil was named Virginia after Queen Elizabeth I. The time between this event and the declaration of Independence, Americans called the colonial period.

life of the first settlers in a foreign place was more severe than it seemed far from Europe. Disease, hunger, clashes with local tribes led to large losses among the colonists. Still, continued colonization of North America. One hundred years later the number of settlers had increased to 300 thousand, and another 50 years to 1.2 million after the Declaration of Independence U.S. population was about 3.9 million people. Over time, new settlements arose on the north and south along the coast of Spanish Florida to New England (13 colonies). Each of them formed independently of each other with their outlet to the sea, with their orders.

So New England was founded by a group of puritans, fleeing from religious persecution (102-pilihrima father) who landed on the coast near Cape strict code of the ship "Mayflower" (caddis flower) 1620 Before he go to the bank, signed an agreement on joint construction of life through the laws and customs of the faith and moral puritans. Later on landing the town was founded New Plymouth. This day is celebrated as the U.S. holiday - Fathers Day pilgrims or travelers gynecology. Settlers puritans had to endure a tough year when they oblashtovuvaly life. Considerable help them provide local Indians. Grateful colonists staged in 1621 in Plymouth for dinner and invited Indians. This event marked the beginning of holiday - Thanksgiving Day.

Being mostly English subjects of the crown, the colonists felt freer than in England itself. Here, in this new land did not have those traditions and customs that oplutuvaly life of Europeans. Any achievement colonists were the result of their hard work, so they quickly realized their freedom and independence. In solving the problems they preferred self-organization, and not finding any patron. This situation quickly led to the democratization of all aspects of life in the colonies. This became the basis of peculiar nature of future Americans. Courage, energy, enterprise, democracy became the main features of the new American nation.

English government felt that its colonies in the New World become more stubborn. In the mid XVII. colonists themselves provide almost all necessary. Gradually increase the colonies became a patriotic movement, which eventually turned into a struggle for independence from England. Near the sources of this movement was outstanding philosopher and educator, scholar and writer, politician and diplomat Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790 biennium).

In the mid XVIII century. Relations between Britain and its colonies worsened. The ban on the development of new lands in the West and new taxes have caused a storm of discontent of the colonists. They are increasingly demanded representation in the English Parliament: "No taxation without representation." After the confrontation between the colonies and England entered the open character and led to war. The most striking episode in the confrontation was "Boston Tea Party, when the sea was thrown cargo of tea that came from England.

In September-October 1774 representatives of 56 colonies gathered in Philadelphia at the First Continental Congress. He adopted the Declaration of Rights, and called for a boycott of British goods.

April 19, 1775 near the towns of Lexington and Concord, the first armed clashes between troops of the militia of colonists and British troops. This day is considered to be the war for independence. The first victory instilled confidence in the colonists. In May 1775 the Second Continental Congress assembled, one of the first decisions was to create a regular army, which was headed by George Washington (1732-1799 biennium).

the proposal of the Congress of colonies began to form their own governments, and some even declared its independence. July 4, 1776 Congress adopted the Declaration of Independence. Its authors were Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826 biennium) and John Adams (1735-1826 biennium). The Declaration proclaimed the creation of new independent states - the United States of America (USA). Meanwhile, British troops occupied Philadelphia (the first capital of USA), New York. Washington's army could hardly contain the enemy. It became clear that due to only one enthusiastic about war not won. Then in September 1776 Congress took action on the war to distribute land to the participants at Appalachian mountains. Hopes for a strengthened army morale, increased flow of volunteers. Americans came to help and volunteers from Europe: French Marquis Lafayette prepared a ship, a German baron William Shteyben of civilian colonists created a real army, a Pole, Tadeusz Kosciuszko. After the war there was a nerelom. The first substantial victory won the American army near the town of Saratoga (October 1777). Then the new state admitted France, Spain, Holland. Having won the American army came to attack and resolute in Yorktown was surrounded and forced the British main force kapitulyuvyty (October 19, 1781).

September 3, 1783 between England and the U.S. signed a peace treaty in Versailles (France). England recognized the independence of the United States and gave them territory from the Atlantic coast to the Mississippi River.

final U.S. constitutional design took place September 17, 1787, when the Constitution was adopted, with some amendments that acts and the present. The first U.S. president George Washington was elected.

first 10 amendments have been formulated by George Madison and decorated in the Bill of Rights (1791).

Over time, was ratified and national symbols.

June 14, 1777 Congress approved a national flag: 13 red and white horizontal stripes and in the corner on a blue background of 13 stars that symbolized the first 13 states of the state. Subsequently increased the number of stars in the process of growth of states. Today, their 50. In 1782, approved the emblem and anthem in 1931, the state.