§ 11.The revolution in Italy and the Austrian Empire
1. Features of the revolution in Italy
Italian state, as the Austrianownership in Italy, were covered years 1848-1849 - the revolutionary events.The reasons they resembled those that led to revolution in Germany.
The peculiarity of Italy was thatmuch of the country was under the Austrian yoke (Lombardy,Venice region, Parma, Modena, Tuscany). For the Austrian Empire, Italy was expressed as Chancellor Metternich,"Purely geographical concept.The struggle for liberation from Austrian rule was considered Italianpatriots as a prerequisite national revival of the country.
In the Rome area remainedsecular authority of the pope, who also was one of the obstacles to nationalunification of Italy. Kingdom both Sytsyliy (the mainland bylong habit called NaplesKingdom) was under powerSpanish branch of Bourbon family and remained nayvidstalicial part of Italy, where he kept feudal relations.
The struggle for national liberationand unification combined withperformances of peasants and urban poor. Together with them in the fight against the feudal-absolutist forces actingliberal-democratic circles that sought the introduction of parliamenttion form of government guarantees of civiland Political yet. It turned out that inrevolutionary events in Italy participated majority population - the liberal nobility andentrepreneurs, students, craftsmen, workers, peasants, urban poor. To fight for national liberation wereinvolved even monarchs. The result was asvariety of forms and methods struggleand inconsistent actions of members of revolutionary events.
2. Events Revolution, 1848-1849 pp. inItaly
Event that launched the revolution, the uprising was
12 January1848 in Palermo on the island. Sicily. Rise quickly covered the whole island. Bourbon troops werepowerless against the rebels. The news of victory spread rapidly in Sicilycountry. In cities held rallies and the demonstration of the requirements reunification, the introduction of the constitutionWar vyzvoing from the Austrianoppression. Revolutionary wave inducedlaimplementation in all the Italian states (except Lombardy and Venice) constitution, elected parliament andformation of governments
The news of therevolutionary performances in Vienna contributed to antyavstriyskyh appearances in March 1848 in Venice andLombardy. At the end of the month the Austrians were forced to withdraw from Venetion, which was declared a republic and createdProvisional Government.
Proclamation of the Republic of Venice
March 18, 1848, the rebellion broke out against the Austrians in Milan. City vkrylosya barricades.Milantsyam had to do Suppression15000th against the Austrian army. Five days of heavy victory ended fighting insurgents.
Battles in Milan
The news of theexpulsion of Austrians from Milan flew over in a flash entire country. Patriotic enthusiasm, which gripped ItaliansPiedmont prompted King Charles-Albert March 24, 1848 to declare war on Austria. In this he ubachavopportunity to their dream andunite under his power Northern Italy. About Piedmont announced support for King and other monarchs. Joinedp'yemontskoyi army of Giuseppe Garibaldi, who learned about developments inHomeland, returned from a detachment of his supporters in South America.But in late July 1848 the Austrians managed to defeat the armyrebels and reoccupied northern Italy.
Despite repression, Austrians, Italianshave not stopped fighting. In early 1849 rebellion broke out in Rome. PopeRoman escaped. Constituent Assembly abolished the secular authority of the pope and declaredforces of the Roman republic. There weredemocratic transformationtion: nationalized church lands separatedschool from the church, reduced taxes and duties and so on.
Against the Roman republic wasunited coalition of Austria, France, Spain and Naples Kingdom.Over two months the Romans defended their city. In the most dangerous places tofought the enemy dressed in red shirts haribaldiytsi. Since July, the city fell. With the help of foreign bayonets Pope Roman regained power. Garibaldi againleft the republic.
By the time the siege lastedRome, the Austrians were able to suppress the resistance in most regions of Italy. It wassuppressed a rebellion in Sicily and the power was restored there NeapolitanBourbon. August 22 fall of the Venetian Republic - the latest hotbed of revolution.In Italy, Austrian terror began, the Italian patriots executed bysentences military field courts as criminals.
The revolution in Italy was defeated,without solving the main task - the liberation and reunification, socialtransformations and the introduction of democratic life. But it has Italian people experience necessary tofurther combat.
3. Social and national problems of the Habsburg
Austrian or Habsburg,Empire was a multinational, klaptykovoyu "State of the territoryover 500 thousand square meters. km (Second after the Russian EmpireEurope). With more than 37 million of its population Slavs of 18 million AustrianGermans - 7 million, the Magyars (Hungarians) - 5 million others - Romanians and Italians. In hisdevelopment is significantly behind the advanced European countries. Thereserfdom (especially in Hungary and in most Slavic regions)arbitrariness of landlords. In Empire, there were 240 species of taxes andobligations. Characteristic. the country was uneven economic developmentits separate parts: the central province had a developed industry(Eg Czech lands) and Oriental (Eastern Galicia, Transcarpathia) - remainedtheir agro-raw materials appendage.
By formAustrian state government was absolute monarchy with absolute poweremperor who was both and king of Hungary.For almost 40 years by the Emperor FranzFerdinand I and ruled the Empire and all-powerful minister Prince Metternich (From 1809 he was Minister of Foreign Affairs and actuallyHead of Government, 1821-1848 pp. - Chancellor), an exponent of conservative views. The entire country was obplutanoPolice surveillance was suppressed any free thought. Metternich createdsystem in which power rested Habsburgs through the incitement of nationalanimosity between the peoples of the empire. Himself emperor of France described it as:"My people strangers to each other: the better. They do not get sick at the same time thosesame disease ... I put the Hungarians in Italy, Italians in Hungary Each keeps its neighbor. They understand andhate each other. From their birth order nepryhylnosti withtheir hostility - general peace. "
4. Background and objectives of the revolution
The economic crisis in 1846 and three consecutive lean yearsfor the Habsburg Empire had disastrous consequences. Inflation, high cost,rising prices for food and home food poor - potatoes never seen beforemassive unemployment in the country have created a dangerous situation. In March 1847 inVienna, Prague, Pest and other cities of the empire there were food riots and unresturban poor and unemployed. Opposed to power unitedliberal intellectuals, businessmen, students and even some officials.Habsburg fought against the government as a national opposition representativespeoples oppressed Empire.
Featurerevolutionary events of 1848-1849 pp. in AustriaGeorgia was the empire was a combination of tasks: carrying out of generalreforms and elimination of Habsburg absolutism, liberation of oppressed peoplesand formation of independent national states; elimination of feudal remnantsorders.
5. Revolution in the Austrian Empire
The beginning of the revolution ledlute an event in Paris.
March 13, 1848 in the Austrian capitalVienna began demonstration under the slogan:"Constitution," "Freedom," "Down with Mattterniha. "Trying to stop the troops from using performance caused even greater intensification ofworkers, students, small businessmen. There were barricades. EmperorFerdinand yielded promising to convene the Reichstag (parliament) and typeconstitution. Metterniha dismissed.
Decree of Ferdinand and the convening of the Reichstag
In April the government published a draftAustrian constitution Empire.The Constitution proclaims freedom of speech, press, assembly, responsibility of government to parliament. Butit stipulatesencounters store empire completely ignoring nationalinterestsPeoples Parliament had a system composed oftwo chambers - arystokraAtlantic Senate and Chamber of Deputies. Supposedsuffrage only to property owners and conservation of fullexecutive for the emperor. This constitution was perceived as an attemptrestore absolutism.
Revolutionary performances 15-26 May caused escape of the emperorand the government of Vienna to the capital of Tyrol Innsbruck and written assurancesintroduction of universal suffrage.
The riots of peasants and workers spread across Austria.June 12 Prague troops shot a peaceful demonstration. Revolt broke out.City vkrylosya barricades. The rebels demanded universal suffrage andgovernment. To Prague was charged a large army that put down June 17uprising.
In July 1848 launchedAustrian Parliament (Reichstah).Among its members, except the Austrian Germans, there were many Italians, Poles,Slovenes, Ukrainian, Croats, Czechs. Most of the seats belongedmoderate liberals, a quarter of deputieslapsewere peasants. The most vigorous representatives of villagers tried to solve the agrarian question, but they lackedexperience political and parliamentary struggle. Proposals for developmentkripachennya peasants without any ransom hotpeasant support Ukrainian deputies and John Kapuschak Lukyan Kobylytsya.Reichstag passed a law on the abolition of feudal serfdom duties. Butboon and servage be redeemable, and 2 / 3 the amount of ransom paid by farmersand 1 / 3 compensated landowners state. The Government has made this authorizationlaw of the emperor to persuade farmers in the Habsburgs charity.
With subdued affectionpeasant deputies pass through parliament the government funding decisionsuppression of the revolutions in Italy and Hungary.
Recent events related to the Revolutionthe workers, artisans, students in the imperial capital - Vienna.The rebels tried to prevent the departure of the Vienna garrison atsuppression of the revolution in Hungary. Fighting continued throughout October 6 - November 1. Government troops took the city by storm. About5 thousand videntsiv died.
After a showdown with the uprising in ViennaThe imperial government set about suppressing the revolution in Hungary.
6. Revolution in Hungary
The news of the uprising in Vienna quicklyreached Hungary. March 15 in Pest (when Buda and Pest, which later mergedwere separate cities) was the manifestation of the requirements of democraticfreedoms. Events taking place in the group led by radical youngled by the Hungarian poet-democrat leader of "YoungHungary S. Petefi (1823-1849).Established on the eve of his "OnrationalSong was hymn revolution.Requirements rebels were formulated in the strategy document "12points ": the provision of democratic liberties, the destruction of serfdom, the withdrawal ofAustrian troops and the country return home of the Hungarian partsdevelopment of self-government and more.
A prominent figure in the Hungarian Revolutionwas Lajos Kossuth (1802-1894). Hedreamed of a democratic and independent Hungary, but no idea of the proclamation of the republicsupport, preferring parliamentary monarchy.
After performances March 15 AustrianSki emperor was forced to meet the demands of the Hungarian oppositioncreating the first national Hungarian government. This came as the government KossuthMinister of Finance and played in itleading role. Government abolished serfdom in Hungary. In September 1848the war, the Hungarians against the Austrian troops. Hungarian Parliament created new government headed by Kossuth- The Committee to Protect the Motherland. "
After the defeat of the Hungarian Army of Vienna in October 1848, Austrian troops invadedHungary, captured in January 1849 the castle and I, crossing over the Danube,of Pest. The young Austrian emperor Franz-Yosyf I, who sat on the thronelate 1848 p., Announced the conversion of Hungary to the province of the empire and abolished alldecision of the Hungarian Parliament, made 1848 and in March 1849 begancounteroffensive Hungarian army and the Austrians were driven from the country.
In April 1849 the Hungarian ParliamentHungary declared independent republicand deprived of Habsburg Hungary. Kossuth was elected governor-president.He vigorously concerned the creation of the army, whose number has reached 170 thousandsoldiers. It was defeat by Austria, opened the way forVienna.
Proclamationindependence of Hungary
But the rebels in the camp was no unity. Large landowners- Aristocrats sought peace and harmony with Austria. The Hungarian nobles notagreed to free the abolition of feudal provynnostey, resistedestablishing equality Hungarians withOther nationalities (Croats, Slovaks, Ukrainian).
Kossuth, reflecting the moodnobility, exercised in these twocritical issues in the revolution - the peasant and the nationtional - hesitation, indecision. Hungarian army did notwas thrown against Vienna.
Austrian Emperor, having receivedrespite, enlisted the help of "gendarme of Europe" - RussianEmperor Nicholas I. The fate of the Revolution decided the invasion of Hungary 200,000thimperial army led by Field Marshal Paskevich. Russian and Austrianmilitary force has prevailed Hungarians. Only after heavy defeats in July of 1849Kossuth was yielded to the peasants and declared the equality of nationalities,but time was up. August 13, 1849 the Hungarian army, surrounded on every side,made weapons. Commanders of the revolutionary army (Among9 of them generals), taken prisoner, was hanged. Cruelly to crackpeasants. In Hungarian villages were punitive expeditions, military courts. Universallydeath occurred. Defeat RevolutionHungary completed the revolution 1848-1849 pp. in the Habsburg Empire.
Revolution in the Austrian Empirewas incomplete. It overthrew the monarchy and did not lead to destructionnafoot oppression. The defeat was itscaused by indecision and Inorganiczovanistyu bulk of the rebels,national hatred, the intervention of Russian troops.
And yet this revolution forced the governmentcarry out some reforms, promoted elimination of feudal dependence of peasants and developmentnational liberation struggle. One consequence of the revolution was to turnAustrian Empire in 1867, in an Integratedstate - the Austro-Hungarian monarchy.
7.Results and historic revolutions 1848-1849 pp.
The revolutionary wave of 1848-1849 pp. covered most of Europe. It combines wrestlingagainst the old order, for the democratization of political life and national movements.Through reforms carried out under pressurerevolutions in European landNaha was eliminated remnants of serfdom.Were formed, contributefriendlier environment for deploymentIndustrial Revolution and the end formationnations. In Germany and Italy have the prerequisites for in associationnational states. The power of many monarchs more or less restrictedconstitutions and parliaments.
Revolution 1848-1849 pp. ended in defeat, but they contributed to furtherdevelopment of European civilization. The fight for civil rights and competitionintroduction to the constitution were a step in the formation of Europe Civilsociety and legal state. The revolutionary events of national vyvyschylyconsciousness of the peoples of Europe, who realized that nature endowed theminalienable rights. Man startedunderstand the role of the subject of political life and fight for thatform of government meet its requirements. But to implement these ideas in life was to be overcome ternysthway.
Questions and Tasks
1. What were the features of the revolution in Italy?
2. Tell us about the revolution in Italy.
3. Describe the features of political andsocio-economicEmpire economic developmentHabsburg.
4. What was the task of the Revolution 1848-1849 pp. in the Austrian Empire?
5. As events unfolded in the Austrian Empire in1848-1849 years?
6. Make a plan to 'Revolution in Hungary "and preparethe story behind it.
7. Make a chronology of key events 1848 - 1849 pp.in European countries. Identify common features revolutions.
8. What were the consequences and historical significance of Revolutions 1848-1849 pp. ?
Note the date!
February 25 1848, - February revolution in France.
13-14 March 1848 - Start a revolution in Italy.
14-18 March 1848 - Revolt in Vienna.
March 15, 1848 - Rise in Berlin.
23-26 June 1848р. - The beginning of the revolution in Hungary,
April 4 1849 p. - Hungary's declaration of independenceTHICKNESS.
December 2 1851 - Coup d'etat of Louis Napo-Leon.