Subject V. EUROPE In the 50's and 60's pp. XIX Art.
§ 12.England and France in the 50's and 60's pp. XIX Art.
1. Achieving EnglandCommerce and Industry championship
Growth of industrial productionbased on the introduction of new technology and increased productivity resulted inEngland converting the first industrially developed country world. Indeed, in the 50's and 60's pp. XIX Art. intensively developed here production of machinery and equipment, which osnaschuvalasyaaboutmyslovist not only English but alsoother European countries and USA. Specialdemand used steam engines, machine tools for metal and tools. Thanks tomechanical machine many types of productsEngland were better and cheaperwe, who immediately gaveit a distinct edge in the global market.
Industrial reaching Englanddemonstrated the great industrial exhibition in 1851 at London Hyde Park.Crowds of spectators gathered near the stands in England, where the models were presentedbridges and port facilities, a model steam locomotives, ships, existing wireapparatus and cotton machines. Dozens of countries participated in the exhibition,could not be compared
з Great successBritain. Exhibition opened the golden age of England, where for the next 20she outstripped all around the world ondevelopment of industry and trade. England became known as the "workshopworld, the world's driver and "World banker. "
Opening the World Industrial Exhibition QueenVictoria
As part of Commerce and IndustryEngland championship was its naval power. At that time England has had the biggest andnaypotuzhnishyy steam merchant fleet. So englishproducts aimed wherever the demand upon them, bringing new profitsEnglish bourgeoisie. Late 60's pp. ХIX century. England share in global foreign trade reached 25%, whileFrance accounted for 10, 5, Germany - 9, 7, USA - 7, 5%. England first beganrepatriate not only goods but also capital. Moreover, not having their ownof other countries frequently soughtservices to British owners regisstruction of ships. England belongedhalf of the merchant marine world, and ittook over from Holland XVII Art. the title of "world rider. "Another item of income fleet filled by fosteringties with colonial possessions.
2. Affirm the principles of liberalism
Economic growth allowedimprove the lives of workers. Most of them succeeded in raising wageswages and 10-hour working day. The best living conditions caused reduction in the 50's and 60's pp. activity of the labor movement. This gave an opportunity to successfullyimplement the principles of public life in liberalizationmu. His supporters professed tolerance and freethinkingindulgence to the negative phenomena, defended peace, reformist pathsocial development, promoted democratic freedoms and freedom of the freetrade business.
Englandremained a parliamentary monarchy. Head of State was a monarch - King (Queen).He appointed a government responsible to parliament. In the upper House of Lordsbelonged hereditary and life appointee head of state perinatal andLower House was elected. Alternately ruled the country of two politicalparties - the Conservatives (Tories) and liberals (vity) between which there was no fundamentaldifferences, but there was always a struggle for power. In the Liberal Party toneasked those who wanted reform. Conservatives are trying to change nothing,not sure that new is better than the old. Both parties were united in defending the existing political system andprinciples of democracy.
At the time, democratic principles inEngland is so built up, eliminating the need to keep that burdensome for the statepolice vehicle and a vast bureaucracy. This gave to the strong sidepopulation is useful and productive work and personally enriched. Rich people- Rich and State not afraid of publishing various papers ofdemonstrations, meetings, activitypublic and political organizations. Therefore to Englandcontinental Europe after the defeat of the revolutions 1848-1849 biennium, perebralosya many workers exposed to radicalthemAction theorists of revolution. In particular, migrated here from Germany K. Marx and F.Engels. A. Herzen Russian revolutionaries in London organized a freeRussian printing house, which published together with M. Ogaryovo almanacPolyarnaya StarAnd newspaperBell", Which containedcalls for revolutionary perestroika Russia.While this radicalism, revolutionary upheavals England gained.
In 1867 in England was conductedsecond parliamentary reform. Voteof skilled workers receivedclass and small businessmen.Of qualification required the presence of your own home or apartment. Numbervoters (men) almost doubled. Half received the right to voteadult male population. Reform Act was a significant milestone in the democratic development of England. Butgeneral principlefoot suffrage incarnation not found.
3.Foreign Policy of England
In the 50's and 60's pp. XIX Art. England adhered to the principles of foreign policy,that were acquired in the previous century. its main purpose wasMaintaining and enhancing the economic and political power of the state.
ConductorBritish foreign policy was Henry Palmerston (1784-1865). He was educated at universitiestah Edinburgh and Cambridge and more than half a centurywas among the most influential leaders in England. G. Palmerston combined initself features aristocrat and statesman, supporterliberalism in the country and cruel in foreign policy. He managed to impose the English public opinionAn superiorityglia, its special role in international relations."British subjects in any country can be sure that the saweye and strong arm of England will protect him from nespravedlyArkalyk and images "- stressed H. Palmerston. strongestThe British Government's argument in the controversy was a military mohutnist,first fleet.
DuringCrimean War (1853-1856 pp. ) England with France and the Sardinian Kingdom (Piedmont) was against RussiaTurkish side. At that time, she feared growing power of Russia. DespiteAllied failures at the beginning of the war, the goal they achieved: Russia and Turkey wasbe prohibited in the Black Sea fleet.
After the war, dangerousenemy England France has become. Forstrengthening their position in England expressed interest united Italy,which could create a counterweight France.In words, supporting Poland in its fight against Russiasity Tsars and Denmark, which was invaded by Prussia,Palmerston government did not want to risk the life of any British soldier.
England drew attention of civilWar in the United States. Big businessmen, land aristocracy supportedSouth. Palmerston believed that there should appear individual states. But many in Britain felt that the war between Northand the South in the U.S. is the battle between democracy and the system of slavery. Victory Northdemonstrated the failure of England to carry out a comprehensive policy be"Owner of the world."
4. The conquest of the colonies
For XVIII - First half XIX Art. England has conducted an active foreign policy, constantly trying toobtain new colonies. Worldwide, there were areasdependent on England, but fancies British colonialists not decreased. Using financial and maritimepower, they sporyadzhaly expedition to conquer new lands and conquerits influence strategically most advantageous places on the planet coloniesstrengthened through building basic military bases and fortifications, the establishmentcolonial administration with broad powers. England controlled the importantpoints on the roads of world trade - the output from the Mediterranean to the AtlanticOcean (Gibraltar), the Red Sea to the Indian Ocean (Aden), approaches toIndia and China (Hong Kong and Singapore). South Africa could not be avoided withoutknown in England because she belonged here in Cape Town Cape of Good Hope.
In the conquered lands of England adopted a policy of carrot andstick. The colonial power combined brutality and petty concessions soughtenlist the support and disfranchised illiterate population.
English colonial jewelEmpire was regarded as India, whose population exceeded the population in metropolitanten times. The British were in India a narrow circle of officials, soldiers,landowners and entrepreneurs. His domination of Anglo-supportedusing weapons, inciting religious and ethnic hatred diplomaticmeans. Indians uprising brutally prydushuvalysya. Most nationalrebellion against the British colonialists (Sypayske) took place in 1857-1859 pp.
British sepoy shot
One of the areas of colonialexpansion of England was repopulation to newterritories in the Americas, Africa and Australia residents Great Britain andsome other European countries. They perform two major roles here. On the onehand, the white settlers create databasefurther advance deep into the continent of England, contributed to their economicdevelopment. They traded, representingallow the creation of economic and political interests of Great Britain. On the other hand, the settlers were often people whohopeless improve theirsituation in Europe. The British government promoted Moving to the colony politically active, dissatisfied conditions life of workers, because it weakened thethe mode of socialty in the country. ColoniesEngland were to source raw materials and food productsnational testing and market for British goods factory.
Englishalways proud that they have created the Empire "The sun never sets." The presence of large colonial possessions was one of the main sources of powerand protsvitantion of Great Britain.
5. Second Empire in France
After the proclamation of the emperor himselfLouis-Napoleon declared: "Empire - is peace." But in 1918 the BoardNapoleon III became the period of wars.
The system of government of the Second Empire wascalculated on how to increase the role of the emperor, who belongedreal vlayes, and diminish the role of representativeskyhbodies.
The new constitution in 1852 begana statement that it "recognizes and guarantees high Principles 1789 р". But in reality Second Empire hadremains of the French Revolution. With the revolutionary character is preservedonly three-color flag, but the words "French Republic. Liberty.Equality. Fellowship with him removed.
Napoleon III had the exclusive right to appoint and convene the State Council, which consideredcountry's budget and make changes to bills.Government in the country did not exist: ministers obeyed directlyemperor. Napoleon III was chief of the army, had the right to declare war and conclude peace;appointed to public office, to issue decrees on law enforcement.
The powers of the legislative body only limitedadoption of laws and budget. Members of the Upper House - Senate appointed emperor for life, bottom -Chamber of deputieslapse consisted of 260 individuals elected to 6 years. The onlythat remained in France since the revolution - universal suffrage. Itextended to all men who have reached 21 years of age. However, votingcarried out under brutal pressure from the authorities to the voters.
Enormous power in the country has won the Catholic church, whichcontributed to establishing the rule of Napoleon III. Under her supervision People locatedEducation. Since universities were dismissed bugtoh professors knownrepublican and liberal views.
Prisons were overcrowdedbonapartystskoho regime opponents. Supporters of the republic, which was notarrested, appeared in emigration. The country was forbidden to conduct anyevents - rallies, demonstrations and more.
All this prompted protybortsiv Empireto secret conspiracies and terrorism. Duringrule of Napoleon III it was committed several attacks.
Bonapartystskyy regime in Francerelied on wealthy farmers, a large commercial-industrial bourgeoisie,bankers. Feature Bonapartism as a form ofgovernment was combination of military and policeterror maneuver between different social strata. Based onCatholic church and branchedbureaucracy, bonapartystskyy regime posing as a nationalpower, which takes into account the interests of the entire population.
6. Completion of the Industrial Revolution
EmpireFrance deprived of political freedom, but also 50-60-E pp. became the era of rapid industrial development and trade. While in the country ended Industryrevolution. All Main industries coveredmanufacturing application machines.As a result, the 50's and 60's pp. total industrial production doubled, foreign trade - times.
Шconsiderable pace constructedRailway. The industry heldprocess of concentration of production and capital: small and medium firmsgradually absorbed large campaigns.
In 1855, inParis opens next Global Industry exhibition. It has largely turned into a demonstration flourishing economy of France. At the exhibition standswere representativeLeni latest achievements industry. The main politicalchallenge this and the next (1867) exhibition was to demonstratestability of the Second Empire and the high level of economy of France.
In 1852 began a grandreconstruction project in Paris. This was to reduce unemployment and decoratecity. In place of medieval Paris faced a new city. Moore blew up instead of narrow streets paveddirect and wide boulevards, planted trees along them, have built stations. Reconstructedother cities.
7.Foreign policy of Empires IIї
In foreign policy, Napoleon IIIhad a penchant for adventurous decision - perhaps he did not give prosvitku famous monasteryuncle - a tireless conqueror Napoleon Bonaparte. All of his rule wasperiod of continuous wars, which cost France its human andmaterial life, but did not bring any benefit.
In EuropeanNapoleon politics III promoted the idea ofFrance to resume those borders that existed before 1815p., matured union plansEurope led by France. Obstacle wayimplement their ideas emperor believed Russia, which served role of gendarme of Europe ". In 1854-1856 pp. France took part in Crimean (Eastern) War, as a result of which Russia waseliminated from European affairs. After some time, the emperor decided vtrutyguards Italian case. Nice for the right to attachSavoie and he Austria declared war on the sidePiedmont. But after two victories Alliesof the Austrian emperor changed his views. With Austria concluded peace, andFrench troops went to Rometo protect the pope. Yes NO Napoleon betrayed their Italian allies. Breaking such foolhardy actionscomplex systemsthe topic of European equilibrium, it is notFrance managed to retain championshiption and was defeatedof Prussia (1870 p. ).
Second Empire rapidlyincreased its colonial possessions. The long war for conquest of Algeria andSenegal in Africa, started in 30 pp. XIX Art. In 1853French colony became New Caledonia (near Avstraliyi). Napoleon active colonial policy III carried on Far East. Together withEngland France led military action in China (1857-1860 pp. ) and forced him to accept unequal treaties.France also participated in the struggle for "opening" of JapanEuropeans. Since 1858 French colonization began in South Vietnam.
In the early 60's pp. Napoleon III intervened in nationalstruggle against the Spaniards in Mexico. Hedecided to helpSpaniards may suppressrebel army by oneOn the French case. Mexicanadventure is over. failure. On requestUSA in 1867 French troops were withdrawn from Mexico. ShortlyEmperor Maximilian, who was kept in the French bayonets, MexicanRepublicans dropped from the throne andshot. Expedition to Mexico cost very much, it failed causeda wave of discontent in France.
In 1863 Napoleon III decided to give diplomatic support to the Polishliberation uprising that resulted in new dramatic deterioration of relations withRussian Empire. Late 60's pp. he managed to cause a worsening of relations with France, Prussia,England and most Italian states.
Therefore, the consequence of foreign policySecond Empire was a significant increase of colonial possessions and deteriorationFrance's relations with most European countries.
Documents. Facts. Comments
English economist Stanley Dzhevans of situation England middle XIX Art.
"The plains of North America andRussia is our bread boxes, Chicago and Odessa - our barricades, and CanadaBaltic states - our producers timber in Australia and New Zealand nightshadeXia flock sheep in Argentina and WesternPrairies North America - our herd bulls, Peru send us yoursilver, and from South America and Australia flows to London gold. Hindus andChinese grow tea for us, and in both India. expand our plantationscoffee, sugar and spices, and Spain France isour vineyards and the Mediterranean - our gardeners. Ourcotton fields for a long time covered the southern partUnited States, now stretched to almost any area of the earth hotball ".
1. Due to which England won a position in the world?
2. As trade ensured England Economicprosperity?
Questions and Tasks
1. What evidence of gaining England's trade - industrialchampionship in the 50's and 60's pp. XIX cm. ?
2. Indicate the features of internal political development England.
3. Describe the foreign policy of England.
4. As there was the colonial expansion of England?
5. Describe the mode that vstanovyvsya in France duringSecond Empire.
6. What bonapartyzm?
7. What were the features of economic development of France in the 50's and 60's pp. XIX cm. ?
8.Why the foreign policy of Napoleon III can be consideredadventurous? What were the achievements and failures of foreign - policySecond Empire?
9.Make a comparative table of England and France in the 50's and 60's pp. XIX cm. Questions to determine the comparison yourself.