Germany after the revolution of 1848-1849 remained divided on many government entities that were part of the German Federation. Meanwhile, the German bourgeoisie was interested in creating a single state. The main role in the unification of Germany played Prussia, whose Government was headed by Minister-President Otto von Bismarck (1815-1898). The unification of Germany he made a "blood and iron" after spending several victorious wars.
In the German Federation for the role of political leader who will unite the German states, Prussia and Austria competed. Bismarck at first with the Austrians defeated of Denmark and took from it, and Schleswig Holstein, and then spoke out against Austria. Crushing defeat in the war with Prussia in 1866 forced Austria to abandon its claims to political hegemony in Central Europe. Austrian Emperor Franz Joseph I (1830-1916) could not resist the unification of Germany under Prussian Hohenzollern power. Because of internal political crisis, he also recognized the equality of Austria and Hungary and agreed to convert its state at the dual monarchy of Austria-Hungary.
German unification policy prevented the French Emperor Napoleon III. For the final unification Bismarck took a victorious war with France in 1870-1871, respectively. January 18, 1871 in Versailles - the residence of French kings - was proclaimed a German Empire. The Prussian King Wilhelm I of Germany became the emperor, and Otto von Bismarck - Chancellor. According to the adopted in April of that year zahalnonimetskoyi constitution for the German Empire entered the monarchy in 1922 with their dynasties, three free cities (Bremen, Hamburg, L
In Italy, initiated the struggle for liberation from the Austrian government and unite the country acted Sardinian Kingdom (Piedmont) and his prime minister Count Camillo Cavour where. 1859 Piedmont King Victor Emmanuel II, with the support of France started the war with Austria. As a result of the war he joined Lombardy. 1860 Cavour, taking advantage of deploying the country's union movement in support of Italy, the Sardinian kingdom pryluchyv to Parma, Modena, Emilia and Tuscany. Important role in the liberation and unification of the country played a future national hero Giuseppe Garibaldi, Italian general.
United Kingdom Italian appeared on the map of Europe in 1861, the Parliament of representatives of all regions of Italy, who met this year in Turin, Italy declared King Victor Emmanuel II, and Prime Minister Camillo Cavour where. However, under the rule of the Austrians remained Venice, and Rome was under French protection. 1866 after the defeat of Austria in the war with Prussia took possession of Venice Italy. Ended reunification in 1870, when, after defeat in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-1871 biennium, the French troops left Rome and was connected to the Italian kingdom. From 1871 Rome became the capital of Italy.
In 1863 uprising against the Russian government raised the Poles. Their goal was to obtain national independence and restore the lost sovereignty. The rise of the Polish national liberation movement's success in liberating and uniting the country, reached the Italian patriots. Through the cruel repression and terror, the Russian government in September 1864 to put down the rebellion. The remains of the Polish kingdom autonomy within the Russian Empire was abolished.
In 1875-1878 he was a revolt against the Turkish oppression covered Bulgaria and Bosnia and Herzegovina, which was part of the Ottoman Empire. Russia supported the Slavs and the Turkish government after refusing to give autonomy to Bulgaria, Bosnia and Herzegovina declared war on the Ottoman Empire. Before the war against Turkey and Romania joined. The war ended with the defeat of the Turks. According to the decisions of the Congress of Berlin in 1878 Serbia and Romania received full independence, Bulgaria - autonomy. Bosnia and Herzegovina and sanjak (district) of Novi Pazar, in order to prevent the creation of a large Slavic state, was occupied by Austria-Hungary.