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Ferrous metallurgy (compendium)

ferrous metals - this industry, including the mining of nonferrous metal ores and production of these metals and alloys. Placement of deposits of nonferrous metal ores shown on the map Mineral Resources .

most common in the commercial use of non-ferrous metals grouped:

- light metals (aluminum, titanium, magnesium);

- heavy metals (copper, lead, zinc, tin, nickel);

- noble metals (gold, silver, platinum);

- alloying metals (tungsten, vanadium, molybdenum).

Light metals are widely used for the production of aerospace, marine equipment for chemical plants. Demand has been steadily increasing. Among the most common light metals in the crust is rock containing aluminum. Therefore, production of aluminum is a major non-ferrous metallurgy industry. The raw material for aluminum is bauxite. Production of aluminum consists of two stages. First - getting alumina (aluminum oxide), tends to areas of bauxite. Second - smelting primary aluminum from alumina by electrolysis. Aluminum production is quite energy-because it tends to electricity sources.

alumina production has spread to Australia, Jamaica, China, Brazil and Russia - countries where the available raw materials. And in aluminum production - in Russia, Australia, China and countries that smelted aluminum from imported raw materials (Japan, Italy, Norway, Germany, Bahrain, UAE). Among exporting countries, Canada ranked first and produces the cheapest aluminum.

melting heavy metal bands, mainly to natural resources. Copper, tin, nickel extracted mainly from Asia, Africa and Latin America. In these countries adjusted initial stages of a metal: extraction, concentration, smelting rough metal, called dirty production . Higher production stage ( refining, alloys and a rolling ) is concentrated in developed countries (USA, Japan, Western Europe).

lead-zinc industry uses as raw material Polymetal ores. The largest producer of zinc and lead are the U.S., Canada, Japan, France, Mexico, Peru, Australia.