For the study themes you find:
§ 15 The modern world economy. International geographical division of labor (MPPU).
History of the World Economy.
Economic activity is leading to all kinds of human activities. It provides the means for existence, organizing his time and a particular way forms a worldview.
Economy - is a science, the type of relationship that made between people the production of economic goods and economic complex of a country.
The world economy has passed a long path. Seeking help his work, man vynahodyla, and ahead with improved tools labor, hardware. Maintenance of new equipment needed thorough knowledge. Therefore, during the whole history of humanity on the one hand improved their economic activities, on the other - has been developing thing.
Glossary of Terms and Concepts
World Economy (World Economy) - Historically formed aggregate of national economies around the world, linked economic ties.
International division of labor - Specialization of individual countries in the production of certain products and services and trade exchange between them on the world market.
Transnational Corporations (TNCs) - Company (Corporation) which has production units in several countries. TNCs establish a system of international production, distributed among several countries, but controlled from one center - the parent company.
As defined by the UN Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) transnational corporations (TNCs) - A "company, consisting of parent and its foreign affiliates.
World Economy - A set of national economies of individual countries. Since they all have general and specific features of development, the world economy as a graduate economic processes at several levels: the global economy as a whole, group of countries, individual countries, major regions within countries.
Now the world economy encompasses more than 240 national economies, dozens of influential international organizations, thousands of large transnational corporations. Thus, the world economy - global system of farm and non-State entities related international division of labor and interacting in various forms. Feature world economy is its integrity, provided that the mechanism international relations, support the activities of international organizations and powerful transnational corporations. Modern World Economy has a complex structure: on the development of multilevel, multi-by spatial organization, asymmetric - due to distorted relations.
Define a clear date of the global economy is difficult. If starting point to consider beginning the commercial activity In general, it is necessary to start from the rise of tribal communities. If lead back to the start of the global economy as an integral organism, the starting point would be the era of large geographical discoveries (XV-XVI centuries.). During this era took accumulation initial capital for the future of industrialization in Europe countries attracting significant overseas territories into a single economic mechanism.
Formation of the global economy - a long historical process that can be divided into stages that are connected with certain events in history humanity. Among the important stage of which include:
So at the end of the nineteenth century. world economy was formed, but its development continues today.Accordingly, in the history of the world economy entails the following stages.
This situation is possible due to a high level technological and technical equipment of agricultural and industrial production.
International geographical division of labor.
World economy - a body of economic interdependence all countries and peoples, based on international division of labor financial-credit and transport and communication systems.
International geographical division of labor - A peculiar engine of world economy. It has emerged in parallel with trade production, which replaces the natural. Because no one country or territory, even the most developed, fail completely independently provide conditions for efficient production of all goods and services. History of the World - a history of division work.
Thus, the international division of labor - the highest level of development socio-territorial division of labor between countries, a core economically beneficial specialization of individual countries and the exchange of products specified quantity and quality. Specialization determine natural-geographic, socio-economic, scientific, technical, historical, national factors that make it possible to produce specific types of goods and services, or the same goods and services, but cheaper or higher quality.
WFP development necessitates increased productivity and lower costs of production. WFP provides implementation advantages country in the exchange of a difference between international and domestic price of exported goods and services, and domestic savings costs of reducing domestic production by use cheap imports.
The basis of division of labor is the international specialization of production, which developed on four main areas: cross-sectoral, subject, technological and podetalna.
Inter-industry specialization covers products primary sector (mainly agriculture and mining industry). Leading countries in world production and oil export natural gas, iron ore - examples of inter-sectoral specialization.
Subject specialization characteristic of the manufacturing industry, ie production and export of finished products (cars, marine vessels, plastics).
Technological specialization resulting "Territorial gap" of a chain in manufacturing certain product (eg, aluminum: alumina produced in countries where extract bauxite, aluminum and metal - in countries with large Electricity power).
Podetalna specialization - Is cooperating, sharing production of specific products. The best of the international cooperating in engineering, chemical industry.
Areas of the country - Is it a specific "card". Yes, Japan is associated with us in an electronic technique, France - with fashion, perfume, wine, Kuwait - of oil, Cuba - with sugar reed, Switzerland - with banks, cheese, watches.
International division of labor is the result of centuries of development productive forces, strengthening of national and international division of labor cooperation based on material interests, growth world market production, development of world population economic relations, regional integration and internationalization production and globalization of world economy.
Regional integration is reflected in the formation of neighborhood economic grouping certain level: the free trade area, customs union, common market or economic union. The effect achieved through the reduction or complete abolition of customs duties and quotas specialization of individual countries and territories in the production of a certain type products and increased competition between business entities.
FTA easier conditions of mutual trade between partner countries. Example: NAFTA, which includes U.S., Canada, Mexico.
Customs Union implies acceptance of the requirements in Trade with countries outside it. Example: Andean Group: Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Venezuela.
Common market provides a single market goods, capital, labor Yi. Example: Mercosur: Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay and Paraguay.
Economic Union - The most mature form of integration, It is characterized by development of a uniform policy, a national economic bodies, the maximum relief perception of the state borders. Economic Union in the world until one - European Union (EU).
Today, the processes of integration groupings cover all regions of the world - Europe, Asia, North America, Latin America, Africa. In economically developed regions of the world communities are not so much but here they are the most mature.
Tab. Major economic integration groupings of regions of the world
|Region||The economic integration groupings|
|Europe||European Union (EU)|
|European Free Trade Association (EFTA)|
|Asia||Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN)|
|Association of Regional Cooperation in South Asia (Saar)|
|Council Gulf Cooperation|
|North America||Free Trade Association of North America|
|Latin America||Latin American Economic System (LAES)|
|Latin American Integration Association (LAAI)|
|The Central America Common Market (TSASR)|
|Caribbean Common Market (Caribbean Community)|
|Commonwealth of Andean Countries (CAN)|
|Southern Cone Common Market (Mercosur)|
|Africa||Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS)|
|West African Economic and Monetary Union (UEMOA)|
|Economic Community of Central African countries (EKKAS)|
|Economic and Monetary Community of Central Africa (KEMAK)|
|Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA)|
|Southern African Development Community (SADC)|
|Economic Community of the Great Lakes (SEPHL)|
|Union Mano River basin countries (NRM)|
Internationalization expressed in bringing together countries to produce various kinds of goods and services. It was possible after the majority of developing countries, held liberal economic reforms, which resulted in the unification took place legal norms of business, buo improved job market institutions, removed restrictions on entry of foreign capital into the country etc.. Recently the process of internationalization of production came zahalnoplanetarnyh rice, objectively grew into globalization economy.
Globalization of world economy - The process of gradual interpenetration and growing majority of farms world into a single world economy. Globalization of world economy expressed in the further concentration of capital in the formation through the merger increasingly powerful corporations and financial-industrial groups (TNC) activities are not limited to the territories of their countries, and goes to global level.
In TNCs account for over 1 / 3 of world industrial production and World Trade, 4 / 5 of all patents for new equipment and technology. Of the 500 85 largest TNCs control 70% of all foreign investment. These 500 giants sell 80% of all industrial products and electronics chemistry, 95% pharma, 76% of production engineering. In turn, each of the 500 largest TNCs have, on average, companies in 11 industries and most powerful to cover 30-50 branches (diversification production), that is diversified.