§ 23. Federal Republic of Germany.
Area: 357 020 km2
Population: 82 330 000 (2010)
Official name: Federal Republic of Germany
State language: German.
Political System: Federal Republic
Legislature: Members of parliament (unicameral parliament members) and Bundesrat (chamber of land)
President: President elected by the Federal Assembly for a term of 5 years
Administrative structure16 federal states (with their government, parliament and constitution)
Common religion: Christianity (Protestant, Catholic)
Member UN (1973), EU (since 1957), NATO (since 1955), Council of Europe (since 1951)
National Holiday: Day of German Unity - October 3
EGP and natural resources potential. Germany - a rich, economically developed state in Central Europe. Bordering the Baltic and the North Sea, bordered to the east of Poland in the south - with Denmark, in the west - Belgium, Netherlands, Luxembourg, on the south - France Switzerland, Austria, Czech Republic. Strait North Sea separates it from Sweden.
By the nature of the surface of the country can be divided into Pvinichnonimetsku lowlands, mountains and Serednonimetski Southern Germany. In the south are spurs of the Alps from the top of Zugspitze (2968 m). North line of average Rhine Shales mountain ranges Thuringian Wood, the legendary mountain of the Harz Brokken (1142 m), Teutoburg Wood Ore Mountains. In the north is the North lowland hills and lakes. To the south is Lake Constance. The largest river Rhine tributaries of the Main, Mosel, Ems, Weser, Elbe, Oder, Danube. Channels linking separate river systems, the most important of them - Dortmund-Ems, Canal Rhine-Elbe and Rhine-Main Canal-Danube. The climate is transitional from maritime to continental, temperate, cool and cloudy with wet winters and summers.
Almost all the territory of Germany situated in the zone of deciduous forests, but today only one third of the territory occupied by forests, which consisting of birch, oak, beech, spruce, pine. The main mineral Natural resources: coal, lignite, small reserves of oil, natural gas, iron, copper, nickel, uranium ore, potash, salt. Has sufficient number of processed timber and land. Overall geographical conditions of the country can be considered quite satisfactory for development of their agriculture and economy.
Population. More than 95% of the population is Germans, but also living Italians, Poles, Greeks, Czechs, Croats, Slovaks, Turks. The average population density in the country is large enough - 230.8 people. per km2. Most of them are Catholics (mainly living in southern lands), about 40% - Lutherans (the north). Except Then there are Muslims, Baptists, Jews. Cultural autonomy is the only a small Slavic minority - Lusatian Serbs. Almost 90% of the population living in cities and surrounding urban areas that a high level of accomplishment. Average life expectancy men - 76 women - 79 years.
Like other European countries, Germany had a large population losses during World War II, but a successful process of "repatriation" ethnic Germans as well as immigration economically active population Turkey, Italy, Greece allowed to quickly restore the number of population.
The government initiated economic reform measures, among them - gradually increase the mandatory retirement age from 65 to 67 years. The government of the country was forced to resort to this step because the overall aging process population. In areas of the economy zanyatist workforce in the country follows: agriculture - 2.4%, industry - 29.7%, field services - 67.8%.
Cities West Germany have a long (more than 2000 years) history, because They were founded in times of Roman Empire (Cologne - 37 g. BC, Aachen - and art. BC). Average German town - a small and quiet, with colorful "gingerbread" houses and clean streets. In each They keep their own culture, but nationwide, celebrated local land holiday, held festivals, carnivals. Although Germany - an advanced industrial country and business, here a little cities with skyscrapers and noisy street.
There are no clearly expressed economic and political center. Rhine-Ruhr area with its major cities Dusseldorf, Cologne, Dortmund, Essen, Duisburgis the main industrial core of the country. Major financial centers and one of the largest banking centers in Europe is Frankfurt am Main. There are over 420 German and international financial companies and banks, in 1998 he placed the European Central bank.
Germany has always been famous for highly educated population and its quality. In 1348 was founded the first German university in Prague then - Universities in Heidelberg (1386) and Cologne (1388). Today known in the world universities of Munich, Berlin, Bonn, Hamburg, Munster. Germany gave the world a galaxy of outstanding scientists, artists, Writers: Martin Behayma, Alexander von Humboldt, Wilhelm Roentgen, George Ohm, Max Planck Hrymm brothers, Heinrich Heine, Thomas Mann, Ludwig Feyhtvanhera, Bertolt Brecht, Johann Sebastian Bach, Georg Handel and others.
Berlin, The capital of Germany the rights of the land. City located in the eastern part of Germany, surrounded by rivers and lakes, confluence of the River Spree in the river Havel. A major transport hub: network channels linking the city with the rivers Elbe and Oder, employs three international airports, subway, urban electrified railway network. Major industrial center, whose main industry - electrical engineering, electronics, instrumentation, general and transport engineering, chemical, pharmaceutical, printing, light and food industry.
In 1700, the city was founded Prussian Academy of Sciences with Leibniz, and in 1810 - Humboldt University.
After the formation of the German Democratic Republic East Berlin was declared its capital (1949). Economic problems and political instability after the death of Stalin brought in mid-June 1953 to sharp worsening political crisis, there was a final split of the city. For the first time in 1952 the GDR authorities had taken stringent measures: closed streets of East Berlin in the West, disconnected phone lines, barred for residents of West Berlin to enter the territory GDR. After closing the borders of Berlin remained the only city where you can almost freely move to the west. What's happened is not little precedent in history - a radical separation of the huge city population of over 3 million people and total isolation of one part of another. August 13, 1961 along the borders between sectors have been built Berlin Wall. It was finally dismantled in January 1990, and Berlin returned a status of official capital of Germany.
Hamburg, the second city in Germany, creates an independent administrative unit - federal states Hamburg. The main sea and river ports country. Significant node railways, roads and air services with international airport, subway. Large industrial, trade, financial and cultural center: the development of shipbuilding, ship repair, aviation engineering, general engineering, electrical engineering, printing, oil refining, chemical, food, furniture, textiles industry, production of brass, steel production, newspaper and publishing, film-making.
Here are the commodity exchanges of coffee, sugar, rubber. In 1558 founded one of the oldest in Europe Hamburg Stock Exchange. There University, Higher School of Music and Fine Arts. Hamburg - city
In Hamburg, about 120 parks, including the world's largest Park Cemetery Olsdorferfridhof. To the north of the old city There is an artificial lake Alster, around which laid semykilometrova "Path of Health".
Economy. Germany is a highly developed country that by volume of commodity production is second only to Japan and the USA. GDP by sector is divided as follows: agriculture economy gives 0.9%, industry - 30.1%, services - 69%. On capita in 2008 it was $ 34,800.
After unification in 1990 Germany and East Germany became a country with greatest economic potential in Europe. The unification of Germany gave new opportunities for economic development.
High state's role in the economy was typical for Germany in all times. The model of social market economy is a compromise between economic growth and equitable distribution of wealth. "Rhine capitalism "- feature of economic development. He characterized by the role of banks in the economy. High social security led to the fact that 40% of net profit of German companies goes for salaries, contributions to social funds. Of 100 euro net wage on average contributions to social funds goes 81 euros.
Since 2003 Germany has become a leading exporter of the world, squeezing even the U.S.. The phenomenon of "nadindustrializatsiyi" typical of modern powerful German economy. This means that the share of industry in the production GDP is large enough in comparison with many other developed countries world. Only Japan, Ireland and Portugal are more industrialized than Germany. It is no coincidence, since specialization Germany in the global economy is the production of industrial products, mainly engineering products.
Industry. Germany has well-developed and well-balanced industry. Its foundation is the world's great concerns and medium-sized industrial enterprises. Giant monopoly, "Krupp", "Thiessen", "Bayer", "Mannesman" etc. occupy a dominant position.
Power operates as a country on its own, and on import energy. Oil refineries to deliver pipeline from Rotterdam, Marseilles, Genoa, through its own ports Rostock, Wilhelmshaven, Bremerhaven, Hamburg. Major Centers oil - Karlsruhe, Inholdshtadt, Emden, Hamburg, Bremen. Gas country receives from the transit pipelines through Russia and the Netherlands with offshore Norway.
In the Ruhr, Aachen and Saarskomu mined stone basins coal, lignite - near Cologne, Leipzig, Halle and Cottbus. 85% mined brown coal used for power in Germany. Thermal power is concentrated in areas of mining of brown coal. On export, it only comes in the form of briquettes.
Electricity countries represented all major types of power plants, which are dominated by nuclear power, giving More than a third of electricity.
PORSCHE - a business card with the German car industry
In the industry plays a leading role engineering. Its enterprises located in almost all cities of Germany, among which the largest centers are Berlin, Munich, Nuremberg, Frankfurt, Cologne, Hamburg, Kiel, Leipzig, Dresden, Stuttgart, Wolfsburg. One-third of industrial output is automotive: Concern "Daimler" BMW, "Volkswagen" MAN.
Headquarters BMW. Munich, Germany
Heavy machinery is concentrated in Duisburg, Essen, Chemnitz, Augsburg, Frankfurt an der Oder. Equipment for printing industry produced in Heidelberg, Plauen, Chemnitz. Germany is one of the leading places in the world to build ships (1st - In Europe and the third - in the world). All over the world wide popularity uses the German electrical industry ("Siemens", "Bosch").
Chemical and pharmaceutical industry produces products of world level (concerns "Well", "Henkel," etc.). Becoming increasingly important production of synthetic and artificial materials and fibers. In Saxony formed a mining-chemical cycle. There are deposits of mineral raw materials for the chemical industry, including producing soda ash, chlorine, magnesium, etc.. The volume of chemical production behind Germany U.S. only.
Developed light, textile and food industries. At the world known brands of sportswear and shoes "Adidas" (8 companies and 25 subsidiaries in Germany, France, UK, USA, Canada, North Africa) and "Puma" (subsidiaries in the United States, France, Switzerland, Spain).
Dozens of beers exported to other European countries. The volume beer production, export and consumption of its products Germany ranks first in Europe and worldwide second only to USA.
In 80 of the last century in Germany there were parks, now they over 20. The largest of these, which includes more than 200 firms specializing in microelectronics - "Isar Valley" - created on the basis University of Munich.
Recently, more and more industries are dependent on Germany imports of raw materials, intermediate products and fuels, but they are distinguished high productivity, which is one of the largest in the world. In terms Germany living standards among the highest in the world.
The fate of Germany in world GDP is about 8%, and the European - About a third. Agriculture. After combining the two Germanies country became largest agricultural producer in Europe, but high intensity Agriculture covers the needs of the population and industry country no more than 80%.
Like Japan, it is the world's largest importer of agricultural products - meat, food and feed grains, oil, vegetables and fruits. More 3 / 4 silshospproduktsiyi in price calculation gives the animal: breeding of dairy cattle and pig breeding (production of hard cheeses, butter and meat). Also raised sheep and goats, large areas occupy the suburbs.
Plant products are grains: wheat, rye, oats, rape; Industrial crops: sugar beets, tobacco, potatoes. Germany sets high yield of wheat - up to 70 kg / ha. Grow vegetables and fruits, especially apples, barley and hops for beer production. The country is known their viticulture and winemaking, which is the biggest development came in valleys of the rivers Rhine and Moselle (the famous Rhine wines and mozelski). Transportation. Dense and well-organized transportation network provides high development of the economy. Important role as waterways played by rivers and canals system.
Major ports and terminals are built and operated in Bremen, Duisburg, Bremerhaven, Hamburg, Karlsruhe, L
Works 550 airports with paved runway, most of them - in Berlin, Frankfurt am Main, Hannover, Hamburg, Cologne, Munich, Bremen, Stuttgart.
Pipeline total length of 48 thousand km transports country condensate, gas, oil, refined products. Paved highway the way the country is 644,480 km. Germany is among the highest places for high density of roads, which moves more than 42 million cars.
Wide development took urban transport. It was in Germany in 1881 opened the world's first tram line, and in 1931 completed the first television broadcast. Internet users is 42.5 million inhabitants country.
Important role in the economy is international tourism. Greatest got popular resort cities such as Baden-Baden (the main center tourism in the Black Forest mountains), Vysbaden, Bayrot, Aachen. Numerical quantity museums, monuments of nature, history and architecture of ancient German Cities in Germany attracts tourists from around the world and the Germans are very love to travel.
High speed train. Germany
Foreign economic relations. Among export goods dominated machines, vehicles, chemicals, metals and products, foodstuffs, textiles. High demand in Europe printing products, porcelain, weapons, lace, furs, musical instruments, household appliances, optical instruments company "Carl Zeiss Jena 'sportswear and equipment, beer. The main trade Partner countries are France, USA, UK, Italy, Netherlands, Austria, Belgium, Spain. Products imported from the Netherlands, France, Belgium, China, Italy, UK, USA, Austria. Germany has been one of the main foreign partners of Ukraine, which exports to Ukraine engineering products, cars, appliances, electronics, food and consumer.
Glossary of Terms and Concepts
Science and Technology Park (Technopark) - A smaller than the Zone, where around technical university or research center housed several companies that conduct implementation of their innovations in high tech and knowledge-intensive industries.
Technopolis- Center for Implementation achievements science and technology. This - a new city, which introduced in production of the latest developments and population resides. Technopolis has research, industrial and settlement areas, has the necessary engineering, communal and municipal cultural infrastructure, comfortable living conditions.
Repatriation(From Lat. Repatriatio - repatriation), repatriation of civilians and POWs who were abroad during war and immigrants.