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§ 2. Geopolitical and economic and geographical position of Ukraine (textbook)



TOPIC 1. Economic and geographical position UKRAINE


§ 2. Geopolitical and economic and geographical position of Ukraine


1.     Remember that an area is the territory of Ukraine.

2.     What is the national territory of Ukraine?

3.     What is called geographical location of the object?


LOCATION UKRAINE MAP OF EUROPE AND THE WORLD. In the twentieth century. Ukraine twice declared national independence: the end of World War (1918) and in time of deep social and political changes after end the so-called Cold War (1991). For more than seven decades that separated these events on the political map of the world were more like 100 new independent states. Instead Ukraine during this time was part most countries of the world - Soviet Union Socialist Republics (USSR). In the USSR in terms of many industrial and agricultural commodities Ukraine has been a leader among all fifteen Soviet republics. In some cases, these values were singingdimensional leading to production Europe and the world(Eg, sugar stormKiv and sugar, sunflower and sunflower oil, iron ore and steel).

August 24, 1991 Ukraine became the 176th time appearance among the independent country on the current political map. And the largest territory, population, natural resourceits potential, Ukraine belongs to the largest countries in Europe and secondary - in the world. With an area of 603.7 thousand km2It postupayet-were generated in Europe, only Russia, and by population (46.1 million persons as of June 2009) Ukraine ranks 6 th place (Appendix 1). Among all countries, our state 44th by area territory and 26 and for populations.

Becoming post socialist country, Ukraine entered the path of transition of centrally planned to market economies. Difficulties nerehidnoho period led to a sharp reduction in output production and reduced incomes. However, at the turn past and present centuries, Ukraine was among leading countries Europe on the production of some types of mineral and agricultural raw materials, their products. However, the production of technologically perfect and high technology products, which determines the level of development in modern world, Ukraine yields to many countries. Reforming the Ukrainian Economy market principles are complex and lengthy process, which will depend on the outcome space our state world economy.

General indicators Ukraine's economic development still quitemodest. The gross national income (GNI) - Total value of all goods and services produced and implemented in the country for the year - in Ukraine beginning XXI Art. occupied only 22nd in Europe and 54th in the world (Annex 1). And in the middle per capita population (ie, GNI, produced on 1 person per year) Ukraine appeared beyond the first hundred of the world and occupied one of the last places in Europe.

This situation and the level of human development index, which annually publishes UN. In his calculations include the CEout prior income per capita, average life expectancy and literacy of the population. Ukraine this indicator takes 76th place among countries.

So, now our country is one of a socialsocio-economic parameters, lower of medium in the world.


Fig. Ukraine on the map of Europe


GEOPOLITIC PROVISIONS. In eighth grade you are familiar with the physical and geographical position of Ukraine. Location country can be seen from the relatively geographical features of political and economic plan: States, regions and international organizations, global and regional centers impact of international transport routes. Then talk about the geopolitical and economic and geographical position and the last distinguished transport and geographical position.

Geopolitical       position Ukraine comfortable and yet sophisticated. It is located approximately at the same distance from non-European centers of world politics and economy - Washington and TokyoRelatively close to the capitals major European powers - Berlin, London, Paris RhymeAnd Brussels and StrasbourgWhich is called "capital Europe, and quite close to the capitals of neighboring states.


Fig. Ukraine in the World


Ukraine is at the intersection of Central,eral and Eastern Europe, while both of these regions. It has large number of immediate neighbors, Wide Go to Seas considerable length boundaries (almost 7 thousand km, including land - inover 5.7 thousand km). The longest border is with Ukraine Russia, Moldovaand Belarus. These countries are members Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS)Formed by ex-Soviet republics after the collapse USSR (Ukraine as its constituent). However, the borders of their least-equipped: there are samplesLemma their demarcation, and with Russia - and delimitation (Coordination and conduct on topographic maps) maritime border in the Azov Sea and Kerch Strait. Therefore, these boundaries most vulnerable to penetrate-nennya illegal immigrants, criminal gangs, drugs, smuggled goods. Besides Ukraine has several hundred kilometers in common border of Trans-Dniester Moldavian Republicsamoproholoshenoyu state in eastern Moldova, which is not recognized by any country in the world and is potentsiynym of political and military tension. Not far from the borders of Ukraine and to the troubled Caucasus region.


Records Ukraine

The longest border is with Ukraine Russia - almost 2 000 km.



For most  political  and economic impact of country-neighbor Ukraine is Russia. Modern relationships between states should develop-vyvatysya and a mutually beneficial partnership. However, some politicalno power in Russia now and then questioned affiliation Ukraine and Crimea Sevastopol, which is an integral part state territory Ukraine. In Sevastopol on long term lease territoryTorah (to 2017) is based Black Sea Russia's navy, which has a number of civilian objects Sea coast of Ukraine. Possible participation of Russian warships, which based in territorial watersUkraine, the military conflict (as it was in August 2008 during Russian-Georgian war), is insecure and transfer of conflict territory of Ukraine.

The boundaries of the Western  neighbors - Poland, Slovakia, Hungary and Romaniafully agreed on land and equipped. Is currently controversial separation space and water Continental Shelf between Romania and Ukraine near Serpents Island. These countries are members of the militaryvo-political Organizations Pivnichnoantlantychnoho contract (NATO). Itself But in Ukraine the first decade of independence prytrymuvalasya neutral foreign policy and joined the any of the military-political blocs. In 2002, Ukraine revised its neutral status and stated intention to enter in NATO.

Ukraine and all its neighbors are members of Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) And Euro-Atlantic Partnership Councilва, Which includes almost all European countries, former USSR and the U.S. and Canada. Its members Having pledged to cooperate withrokoho political issues and problems security. Specific measures such cooperation carried out within the framework Partnership for Peace. For example, in Ukraine the joint with neighboring countries and by NATO military exercises.


Fig. Outpost in Ukraine at the Black Sea. Serpents


Economic and geographical PROVISIONS. A considerable length of Ukraine's borders, their accessibility to view fizy-co-geographical conditions, good neighborly relations with countries vrehuloated special contracts, creating prerequisites for development of interstate Economic Relations and transport links. All the neighbors of Ukraine-yinoyu state, as she should for now a relatively low the socio-economic development is post-socialist countries-Asia and in transition. However, western neighbors - Poland, Hungaryschyna, Slovakia and Romania - joined the European Co-ciations (ЄС) - The biggest interstate economic organization, which in Persianterm, aspiring and Ukraine.

The immediate neighbors Ukraine is its biggest trading and economic partners. First it Russia, which supplies Ukraine fuel (natural gas, oil), raw manufactured goods are investor capital and the market for Ukrainian industrial and agricultural products, employers labor from Ukraine. Coming Ukraine to highly developed countries are Germany-на, Austria and Italy.

Extremely important feature of the geographical position of Ukraine is the Black and Azov Seas. Coast line in within Ukraine than 2,8 thousand km and suitable for making port-industrial complexes, development of sanatorium and recreational facilities, marine shipping. Black Sea, Ukraine has access to the Balkan peninsulava, Turkey and Georgia, Then - to the large regions of the Middle East й Prykaspiyu, which are promising for the economicallyon cooperation, and first deliveries in Ukraine energy. Seaside position of Ukraine as it provides direct Go to the main centers of world economy - Western Europe, North America, Asia-Pacific region and countries Developing with Latin America, Africa and Asia.

In the waters of the seas Ukraine has a large size (over 80 thousand km2) economicNoah zone - marine areas outside the territorial waters and adjacent to them. The economic zone is open for different shipping countries, but the exploration, exploitation and conservation Natural re-resources (mineral and biological, which is in water on the bottom shelf in the bowels) belong only to competence of the Ukrainian state.

Transport-geographical PROVISIONS. Ukraine has extremely good transport-geographical position-ня. It defines central location of our country in Europe at the crossroads of the shortest routes from Eastern Europe and Central Asia andobtain necessary Europe and from the Baltic region the Black Sea. This contributed to the early use of the territory of Ukraine as a unifying link between nations and civilizations different parts of the Old World. From ancient territory during Ukraine crossed migration and trade routes of NorthChi-south (the road from " Varangian the Greeks) and from East to West (offshoot of the Great Silk Road, steppe nomadic peoples ways of resettlement).

Now across the territory of Ukraine numerous international communication - railways, highways, oil and gas pipelines, airways, and the courtnoplavni river line and power communications. It  allows Ukraine have different outputs as neighbors and remote areas, and receive profits from payment of transport through the territory of our country goods and passengers other countries (ie transit). However, the benefits transport-geographical position at this time are not used to the fullest.

New opportunities for easy to use and geopolitical transvehi-geographical position of Ukraine appear at the firstlong term of European and Eurasian transport corridors. They have to connect the Western and Eastern Europe and the Caucasus, Central Asia and relations towhom East and Europe.


Ukraine in time and space

On transport and geographical location

Geographical location - these may, chief factor for each geographic region or country? Ukraine is a consequence their geographical location, one of the most important key points "download Great Eastern-Western system of water and land ways. All these ways are mediocre or even under the direct influence of Ukraine.

Stephen Rudnitsky,  1921  р.


Fig. Ukraine has a wide outlet to the sea. Odessa port



By size territory, population, natural resourceit belongs to the potential of Ukraine largest states in Europe and secondary - in the world.

Geopolitical situation Ukraine is a feasible and challenging at the same time (now there is a problem of demarcation land and the delimitation of maritime borders).

Ukraine is on intersection of Central and Eastern Europe between NATO and the EU on the one hand and CIS countries on the other. As members of the CIS Ukraine announced its intention to join in future  NATO and the EU.

Generally favorable economic and geographical position of Ukraine and especially transport and geographical, are currently not is fully used.


Questions and Tasks

1. What Ukraine occupies a place in Europe and the world in territorial size, number of population and key socio-economic indicators?

2. Identify geopolitical and economic and geographical situation of the country.

3. What are the benefits and complexity of the geopolitical position of Ukraine?

4. Name basic features of economic and geographical position of Ukraine.

5. In What is the utility of transport and geographical position Ukraineyiny? As it used?


Practical work 1

1.     On the outline map mark the state  border of Ukraine, sign the names of countries with which it borders.

2.     Identify the basic features (positive and negative) geopolitical Position of Ukraine.

3.     Find out the benefits of economic and geographical position Ukraine.