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11. Defensive structures Kyiv (textbook)

Kyiv and War                                                                                                                                 


Key issues:

-       What role played in strengthening the city's life?

-       As people of defended their city?

-       As the war influenced the city and the fate of Kiev?



            From What began Kyiv? What does the word "hail"?


Kiev legend

Nestor the Chronicler in the "Tale of Bygone years, "recalls the legend of the defense of Kyiv from the tribes in 968 Pechenegs year. Taking advantage of the fact that Prince Svyatoslav was in march they came upon the city. Sturm take strong Kiev strengthening pechenigs could not, so besieged city. They hid a lot of people from nearby settlements. Exit Kyiv nobody could. Besieged threatened hunger. The last hope was to call for help military garrison, which was on the other bank of the Dnieper.

Inform troops about the danger that threatened Kyiv volunteered lad, who knew Pechenegs language. He passed through the enemy camp by pretending that his horse is looking. Distavshys Dnieper, rushed into the water and swim to the other side. Catch brave Pechenegs failed. Learning about the situation in Kiev, the governor hastily Pretych to help Kiev. The city was saved.


- Why pechenigs attacked Kyiv;
- Do you think that waiting for residents in case of putting the city?
- What, besides courage and imaginative young man, helped resist the city? Why pechenigs could take the city?
The appearance of each city with great history is defined not only its natural environment, but also its fortifications. Himself
 choice of location for the city's founding was marked by its defense capabilities. A further strengthening of (fortress, hail, Detinets) 
became the nucleus around which, in fact, the city and formed. The quality, strengthened depended too much - sometimes just 
of the city.
Source 1. Strengthening of ancient Kyiv. Reconstruction


Source 2. Kyiv lock. Figure Westerfeldt 1651




- Tools that help stormed ancient cities:



















Us consider

-                     That was a strengthening of ancient Kyiv?

-                     Since the materials they built? Why them?

-                     As far as reliable they were?







Source 3. Plan of fortifications and modern look of the Kiev fortress.



            - Using these guns stormed the fortress






Consider comparing:

-          How have strengthening the city? What causes it?


How reliable are they?P8260419




Source 4. Plan of fortifications and modern look

Kiev ukriprayonu - pillboxes (30-40 years of XX century.)



Ukriprayon - A system of defensive structures on the approaches to the city. Consisted of multiple lines or steel reinforced concrete pillboxes (Permanent firing points), armed with cannons and machine guns, antitank ditches, minefields, etc..


Consider comparing:

- Has changed in the location of fortifications? What This can be explained?

- Compare with fortifications fortifications KyURu Kiev fortress. What are the differences? Why?

- What is the potholes on doti shown in source 4?


Strengthening the city may be more or weaker. But history knows many cases where the fortress seemed to were considered impregnable. She knows many cases where there is fenced city to become enemies fortress. After all, the main force of any Fortress - people, their courage, willingness to sacrifice.


Source 5

(A) From paintings V. Shatalin

152 - Бій в Києві з монголо-татарами - 1240



Defense Kyiv the Mongols

(B) From "Annals Rus'? "

"1240. Batu came to Kyiv with a large force and besieged city. And surrounded [Kyiv] force Tatar, and was in the garden

 great siege.

And Batu set vices at garden gate Lyadsky? vices and continually beat day and night. Vibo they wall, and

out Residents are divided on the wall, and it was here vydity as breaking spears and rozkolyuvalysya boards, [and] boom overshadowed

 defeated world and Dmitri was wounded. Citizens have another friend around strengthening [church] of Saint Mary


A morrow after [Tatars] on them, and battles between them was great. People in the meantime and ran out to the church and the vault

 church with their bag and baggage, [and] the burden of fallen units from the walls of the church, and so strengthening was taken [Tatar]

 voinamy. Dmitry is brought [to Batu] wounded, but they killed him because of his courage. "




(C) Konstantin Stogniy subsidizes the defense number 131.
"In August 1941 he [dot] repelled all attacks of the Germans. 
Four days Nazis could not approach him.
 DVT defense has kept 11 people with 3 rd Brigade airborne troops 
under the command V. Yakunin. They seem abandoned. ? 
Then the water began to dot with flame-throwers, until it became red. "




Let us consider:

-          uniting these sources?

-          Defenders Kyiv in 1240 and in 1941 could not understand his situation. Why are not they lay down their arms before the enemy?

Source 6. Construction of defensive structures in 1941


Let us consider:

-         what the building? What is it?

-         Who works? What are these people?



             - Technology, which fought in the twentieth century.


    World War II began with Nazi Germany for Kyiv on the first day War, June 22, 1941.
 The first bombings were heard in various parts of the city. Almost immediately, the peaceful city of Kyiv into a strong
 defensive point. The city constructed starting barricades built various fortifications. On rooftops 
been established anti-aircraft machine guns. Almost all businesses start Kyiv pereoriyentovuvatys on the issue of military 
products. The population was recorded in Kyiv militia.
    The first German troops appeared near Kyiv, July 11, 1941. Getting started and 72-day defense of Kyiv. Fights soon 
became difficult and protracted. The same position several times passed from hand to hand. Only September 19 enemy 
managed to break into the city. But the battle for the city treated him too dearly.
    From 1941 to 1943 in Kyiv was the occupation. During this time the population decreased by nearly half. Some died in the fight against invaders. Who could have fled to relatives in villages where you can somehow proharchuvatys. Young exported as slave 
to Germany.
Considerable damage has also been very Kyiv. During battles by city, underground fighting destroyed many houses, 
business, cultural and historical attractions. Practically ruined was the center of town.





Source 7. Khreshchatyk in 1944 after liberation and in 1949


Monument   who died at Babi Yar



    Worldwide, Kyiv is famous for the tragedy that took place during occupation. Having occupied the city new authorities began mass executions 
Jews at Babi Yar. Only the first three days were killed nearly 30 thousand people. Ibid rozstrilyuvalys 
and representatives of the Resistance Movement, or even those who were not like the new regime. According to various estimates by occupation, there
 was deleted from 100 to 300 thousand people. September 29-30, honors the memory of days as victims at Babi Yar.



(A) A monument to military pilots


(B) Monument obelisk on the grave   Unknown Soldier


(C) Monument to General


Source 8
Rozpytay adults and say:
-          where the monuments are depicted in the source 8 (a-d);
-          which ones are in your area? What else do you know?
-          Whether you visit the monuments connected with the events of WWII with parents or class? Which days? Why then?
-          Which of the statue had the greatest impression on you? Why?




Source 9.

            Memorial Complex Museum Great Patriotic War.




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-    Why monument shown in the form of a woman with a sword and shield.
-     Why complex called the memorial? Why is there a separate room for memory?
Write a mini-work (no more pages) on: Why is it important to remember the victims.